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Número. 43. Vol. XXIII. [IF 1691 EQUALS=”LUDUS VITALIS”] Ludus Vitalis – [/IF 1691]Revista de Filosofía de las Ciencias de la Vida

Revista científica. Colección: Ludus Vitalis. 2015, Ciudad de México (México). Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos Políticos y Sociales Vicente lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universitat de les Illes Balears, La Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia

ISSN: 1133-5165

Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Sociales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Tierra, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Historia, Psicología, Lenguaje y Lingüística, Literatura.
Palabras clave: Marcuse, Habermas, pensamiento social, predicciones epidemiológicas, Linus Pauling, Triatomines, circulación de conocimiento, contracultura, petróleo, historia de la ciencia

Descripción:

Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, la ciencia en México, epistemología, relación mente-cuerpo y técnica y naturaleza.
Artículos en adelanto:
– Triatomines or humans: Who are the invaders? Por Fernando Otálora Luna, Elis Aldana, Ángel Viloria.
– Linus Pauling, la Fundación Rockefeller y el nacimiento de la medicina molecular. Por Francisco Javier Serrano Bosquet.
– Desafíos del pensar social y humanístico frente a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Por Teresa Pacheco Méndez.
REVISTA PRÓXIMAMENTE DISPONIBLE EN DIGITAL. Para solicitar el número impreso pueden dirigirse a centro.lombardotoledano@gmail.com

1. Triatomines or humans: Who are the invaders? (English)

Fernando Otálora Luna. Laboratorio de Ecología Sensorial, Centro Multidisciplinario de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, dependencia Mérida (IVIC-Mérida), Mérida, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Elis Aldana. Laboratorio de Entomología “Herman Lent”, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Ángel Viloria. Laboratorio de Biología de Organismos, Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Edo. Miranda, República Bolivariana de Venezuela

Among 140+ kissing bug species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), all of which are potential vectors of the etiological agent of Chagas disease (i.e. Trypanosoma cruzi), only few of them have been reported visiting and inhabiting human abodes, therefore, considered of major epidemiological importance. Commonly, triatomine species are arranged in grades of increasing association with humans. This ad hoc classification has two extremes: domestic and sylvatic triatomines, with in-between levels that depend on the capability of the species to invade human houses. Although the use of these levels is convenient for epidemiological comprehension of Chagas disease, we cannot deny that there are two controversial criteria in the choice of these categorical terminologies: anthropocentrism and adaptationism. Our viewpoint considers these elements as problems of the current and widespread classification system for kissing bug species regarding their association with humans. Anthropocentrism might derive from how vectors of Chagas disease are seen by medical professionals. Adaptationism, conceives all evolutionary traits in organisms to be driven to an optimum. Current Chagas disease control programs have been designed through these approaches. Our viewpoint aims to hypothesize a paradigm shift in this topic and to induce a controversial debate that lay new foundations for research in ecology of triatomines. This would improve triatomine control programs efficiency.

Palabras clave: triatomites, enfermedad de Chagas ecoepidemiología, antropocentrismo, adaptacionismo, vectores de enfermedades, pobreza, seres humanos como invasores, antrópico los ecosistemas

1. SONIDOS, RUIDOS Y SILENCIOS: ENTRE LA CRISIS Y LA PERMANENCIA DEL DETERMINISMO GENÉTICO EN LA BIOLOGÍA CONTEMPORÁNEA (Español)

Nahuel Pallitto. Grupo de Filosofía de las Ciencias-FCEN/FFyL-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina., nahuelpallitto@gmail.com
Alicia Massarini. Grupo de Filosofía de las Ciencias-FCEN/FFyL-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina., aliciamassarini@yahoo.com.ar
Guillermo Folguera. Grupo de Filosofía de las Ciencias-FCEN/FFyL-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina., guillefolguera@yahoo.com.ar

This work critically analyzes the characterization of genetic determinism given
by some areas of contemporary biology. The main hypothesis is that even if
some important theoretical changes have occur in recent decades, genetic
determinism continues to be assumed in areas such as behavioral biology and
some techno-scientific endeavors such as the Human Genome Project.

Palabras clave: Determinismo genético, genética cuantitativa, relación genotipo-fenotipo, síntesis biológica, la síntesis extendida, epigénesis, Evo-Devo, biología conductual, proyecto del genoma humano, diversidad teorética.

2. Linus Pauling, la Fundación Rockefeller y el nacimiento de la medicina molecular (Español)

Francisco Javier Serrano Bosquet.. Escuela de Graduados en Educación, Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, México

The development of medicine was made possible thanks to the advances produced in chemistry. Research on sickle-cell anemia by Linus Pauling and his team is a clear example. The understanding of this disease in molecular terms was made possible by the transference of knowledge, methodologies and tools from the chemical and biological disciplines. This paper analyzed the process under which molecular medicine was developed, the frameworks and guidelines that dictate its realization, and their epistemological and ontological implications. We also analyzed the work that Warren Weaver and Robert S. Morrison did in the Rockefeller Foundation, which turned essential in such process.

Palabras clave: anemia de células falciformes, Programa de Biología Experimental, Fundación Rockefeller, historia de la medicina, Linus Pauling, medicina molecular, biológico reduccionismo, transferencias metodológicas

3. Desafíos del pensar social y humanístico frente a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (Español)

Teresa Pacheco-Méndez. Instituto de Investigaciones sobre la Universidad y la Educación, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Cultural changes in today’s society are closely linked to the new information technologies. Further from the uncertainty characteristic of Modernity, new technologies have modified some basic concepts within human experience, such as time, space and virtually. Humanistic thought is marked by history not like a fatality, but as a construction, a social reality that becomes present and outlined like a future to be built. In such sense, a world in constant change requires the humanities’ reasoning procedures and cognitive resources to enable individuals and social groups to deal with the present situations of uncertainty, and to turn them into means for development and welfare. Our purpose is to identify the main challenges facing the humanities and social sciences—conceived as a field of knowledge in constant process of construction—as they identify new problems, design ways to approach them, and redefine their new spaces of intervention and action.

Palabras clave: humanidades y ciencias sociales, tecnologías de la epistemología, información, incertidumbre, reflexividad, heterogeneidad socio-culturales, comprensión crítica, flexibilidad cognitiva

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Desafíos del pensar social y humanístico frente a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 43 (2015)

Teresa Pacheco-Méndez. Instituto de Investigaciones sobre la Universidad y la Educación, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Cultural changes in today’s society are closely linked to the new information technologies. Further from the uncertainty characteristic of Modernity, new technologies have modified some basic concepts within human experience, such as time, space and virtually. Humanistic thought is marked by history not like a fatality, but as a construction, a social reality that becomes present and outlined like a future to be built. In such sense, a world in constant change requires the humanities’ reasoning procedures and cognitive resources to enable individuals and social groups to deal with the present situations of uncertainty, and to turn them into means for development and welfare. Our purpose is to identify the main challenges facing the humanities and social sciences—conceived as a field of knowledge in constant process of construction—as they identify new problems, design ways to approach them, and redefine their new spaces of intervention and action.

Palabras clave: humanidades y ciencias sociales, tecnologías de la epistemología, información, incertidumbre, reflexividad, heterogeneidad socio-culturales, comprensión crítica, flexibilidad cognitiva

Linus Pauling, la Fundación Rockefeller y el nacimiento de la medicina molecular (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 43 (2015)

Francisco Javier Serrano Bosquet.. Escuela de Graduados en Educación, Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, México

The development of medicine was made possible thanks to the advances produced in chemistry. Research on sickle-cell anemia by Linus Pauling and his team is a clear example. The understanding of this disease in molecular terms was made possible by the transference of knowledge, methodologies and tools from the chemical and biological disciplines. This paper analyzed the process under which molecular medicine was developed, the frameworks and guidelines that dictate its realization, and their epistemological and ontological implications. We also analyzed the work that Warren Weaver and Robert S. Morrison did in the Rockefeller Foundation, which turned essential in such process.

Palabras clave: anemia de células falciformes, Programa de Biología Experimental, Fundación Rockefeller, historia de la medicina, Linus Pauling, medicina molecular, biológico reduccionismo, transferencias metodológicas

SONIDOS, RUIDOS Y SILENCIOS: ENTRE LA CRISIS Y LA PERMANENCIA DEL DETERMINISMO GENÉTICO EN LA BIOLOGÍA CONTEMPORÁNEA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 43 (2015)

Nahuel Pallitto. Grupo de Filosofía de las Ciencias-FCEN/FFyL-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina., nahuelpallitto@gmail.com
Alicia Massarini. Grupo de Filosofía de las Ciencias-FCEN/FFyL-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina., aliciamassarini@yahoo.com.ar
Guillermo Folguera. Grupo de Filosofía de las Ciencias-FCEN/FFyL-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina., guillefolguera@yahoo.com.ar

This work critically analyzes the characterization of genetic determinism given
by some areas of contemporary biology. The main hypothesis is that even if
some important theoretical changes have occur in recent decades, genetic
determinism continues to be assumed in areas such as behavioral biology and
some techno-scientific endeavors such as the Human Genome Project.

Palabras clave: Determinismo genético, genética cuantitativa, relación genotipo-fenotipo, síntesis biológica, la síntesis extendida, epigénesis, Evo-Devo, biología conductual, proyecto del genoma humano, diversidad teorética.

Triatomines or humans: Who are the invaders? (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 43 (2015)

Fernando Otálora Luna. Laboratorio de Ecología Sensorial, Centro Multidisciplinario de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, dependencia Mérida (IVIC-Mérida), Mérida, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Elis Aldana. Laboratorio de Entomología “Herman Lent”, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Ángel Viloria. Laboratorio de Biología de Organismos, Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Edo. Miranda, República Bolivariana de Venezuela

Among 140+ kissing bug species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), all of which are potential vectors of the etiological agent of Chagas disease (i.e. Trypanosoma cruzi), only few of them have been reported visiting and inhabiting human abodes, therefore, considered of major epidemiological importance. Commonly, triatomine species are arranged in grades of increasing association with humans. This ad hoc classification has two extremes: domestic and sylvatic triatomines, with in-between levels that depend on the capability of the species to invade human houses. Although the use of these levels is convenient for epidemiological comprehension of Chagas disease, we cannot deny that there are two controversial criteria in the choice of these categorical terminologies: anthropocentrism and adaptationism. Our viewpoint considers these elements as problems of the current and widespread classification system for kissing bug species regarding their association with humans. Anthropocentrism might derive from how vectors of Chagas disease are seen by medical professionals. Adaptationism, conceives all evolutionary traits in organisms to be driven to an optimum. Current Chagas disease control programs have been designed through these approaches. Our viewpoint aims to hypothesize a paradigm shift in this topic and to induce a controversial debate that lay new foundations for research in ecology of triatomines. This would improve triatomine control programs efficiency.

Palabras clave: triatomites, enfermedad de Chagas ecoepidemiología, antropocentrismo, adaptacionismo, vectores de enfermedades, pobreza, seres humanos como invasores, antrópico los ecosistemas