Go to Top

Búsqueda Avanzada

Búsqueda Avanzada
Enviando

Número. 41. Vol. XXII. [IF 1691 EQUALS=”LUDUS VITALIS”] Ludus Vitalis – [/IF 1691]Revista de Filosofía de las Ciencias de la Vida

Revista científica. Colección: Ludus Vitalis. 2014, México DF (México). Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos Políticos y Sociales Vicente lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universitat de les Illes Balears, La Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia

ISSN: 1133-5165

Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Sociales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Sociología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: evolucionismo, epistemología, mente-cuerpo, conducta, técnica, naturaleza

Descripción:

Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, epistemología, técnica y naturaleza, la relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento y conducta, lo humano, una reseña bibliográfica y el foro: ¿para qué sirve la filosofía?

1. CAPTURING THE ORDER IN NATURE AND DARWIN´S TREE OF LIFE (English)

Erica Torrens. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, torrens@ciencias.unam.mx
Ana Barahona. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, ana.barahona@ciencias.unam.mx

Following the publication in 1859 of On the Origin of Species, perception of natural “Began to change from a ‘creation plan’, known for similarities and differences among species, to that of ‘kinship’, known for genealogical relationships. The achievement of a diagram to represent affinities through evolutionary relationships became a major enterprise for many naturalists. Although Darwin posed the challenge to depict the common descent and evolutionary relationships for living beings in the form of a ‘Tree of Life’, he was not the first to employ the tree metaphor in the life sciences, as he stated at the beginning of his famous arboreal metaphor: “the affinities of all the beings of the same class have sometimes been represented by a great tree.” Who were those authors that represented affinities of beings in the form of trees and when these trees appeared? Were there other metaphors to represent the order found in nature?

Palabras clave: natural system, Charles Darwin, Tree of Life, branching diagrams, natural affinities, common descent, genealogical relationships

2. EXPLICACIONES SELECCIONISTAS HISTÓRICAS Y AHISTÓRICAS (Español)

Santiago Ginnobili. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Universidad nacional de Quilmes, Argentina, santi75.wordpress.com

The historical character of natural selection theory has been controversial. In this article, I will focus on the ambiguity of the uses of the expression “natural selection theory”. Sometimes it is used to refer to the theory that provides the mechanism by which organisms acquire traits that allow them to survive in their environment. It is also used to refer to the theory that explains why certain types of organisms within a population have higher reproductive success than others. This distinction solves some problematic issues when referring to such theory.

Palabras clave: atural selection, historical explanations, genetic explanations, mechanism, Fodor & Piattelli-Palmarini, explanandum of natural selection, Lucia Federico, metatheoretical structuralism, natural laws

3. “EL ORIGEN DE LAS ESPECIES” EN EL CONTEXTO (Español)

Luis Espinoza Soto. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, luis.espinosas@usach.cl

The objective of this work is to summarize the historical and social influences of Darwin’s theory presented in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. I highlight the concept of “science” as used in the scientific revolution, a calling to explain how natural elements function regarding observable causes. “Natural theology” will share its functionalist approach with Darwin’s theory. The Age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution will shape a belligerent political climate, in which the new ideas on transformation will be related to the revolt against the established social order (reflected in the 1829-1830 debates between Cuvier and Geoffoy). In England, the core of the Industrial Revolution, biological ideas were specially considered from a social viewpoint. Finally, I will mention some biographical elements of Darwin, his liberal family atmosphere, the places he visited during his journey, the political economy of his times, and his relations to practical livestock breeders

Palabras clave: darwin, social context of theories, natural theology, French Revolution, Enlightenment, Malthus, Smith, Kropotkin, Cuvier, Geoffroy

4. THE FEATHERED ONE IN THE FLOCK OF MODELS: GALLUS GALLUS AS A MODEL ORGANISM FOR DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (English)

Miguel López Paleta. Grupo de estudios Sociales de la Ciencia. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, miguelpaleta@comunidad.unam.mx
Edna Suárez Díaz. Grupo de estudios Sociales de la Ciencia. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, ednasuarez@ciencias.unam.mx

This paper aims to provide a critical picture of the role of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) as a “model organism” in developmental biology. As such, it seeks to be a contribution in the field of historical epistemology, broadly defined. We take into account the characterization of model organisms by Ankeny and Leonelli (2011) and, secondarily, the one developed by Rheinberger (2010), in order to discuss the ways in which chicken fulfils, or not, the epistemic and material features of current model organisms. In a similar manner, we bring up some new arguments to those that chicken researchers have provide when facing the fact that Gallus gallus is not an organism frequently used in certain genetic research contexts. Finally, we consider some interesting topics in the philosophical reflection on model organisms that could be illuminated by the case of the domestic fowl.

Palabras clave: model organisms, Gallus gallus, chicken, developmental biology, modeling, representation, vertebrate biology, philosophy of biology, scientific practic

5. LAS ESPECIES COMO LINAJES DE POBLACIONES MICROEVOLUTIVAMENTE INTERCONECTADAS (Español)

Gustavo Caponi. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil, gustavoandrescaponi@gmail.com

Species can be defined as a lineage of populations where microevolutionary isolation was never set up. ‘Micro-evolutionary isolation’ between two populations occur, if and only if, the micro-evolutionary processes affecting one of them (namely, natural selection, genetic drift, sexual selection, mutation and/or migration) cannot reach the other. This is a delimitation of the evolutionary species concept that is compatible and in accordance with the conceptual division of labor that some authors have proposed to solve the problems raised when defining the concept ‘species’.

Palabras clave: definition of species, evolutionary species concept, micro-evolutionary isoliation

6. CONTROVERSIES OVER THE EVOLUTIONARY ROLE OF PARANASAL SINUS PNEUMATIZATION IN HUMANS AND NEANDERTHALS AS AN ADAPTATION TO EXTREME COLD (English)

Vicente Dressino. Cátedra de Antropología Biológica IV, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentina, vdress@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar
Susana Gisela Lamas. Cátedra de Lógica y Metodología de las Ciencias, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentina, sglamas@yahoo.com.ar

In this paper, we examine a case of scientific controversy over the evolving role of the paranasal sinuses, comparing Neanderthals and humans by analyzing two rival hypotheses. The first hypothesis states that the paranasal sinuses do not represent an adaptation to extreme cold, while the second claims the contrary. The two articles partially use the same database and employ identical methodologies and evolutionary theoretical assumptions. This example is interesting because, in terms of Nudler’s concepts of controversial and non-controversial spaces, the problem lies in the latter, i.e., the biases of the two articles and their mistakes. Our paper highlights the misunderstandings that can arise when an attempt is made to analyze a complex structure from an evolutionary perspective using two-dimensional analytical techniques, that is to say, explaining a trait in isolation and, consequently, losing an integrated approach to the organism and its multiple interactions with the environment.

Palabras clave: scientific controversy, paranasal sinuses, Neanderthals, humans, complex systems, modularity, controversial spaces, methodologies, evolutionary explanations, philosophy of biology

7. EL MODELO DE FOUCAULT APLICADO AL CAMBIO DE LA HISTORIA NATURAL A LA BIOLOGÍA EVOLUCIONISTA (Español)

Elmer Castaño Ramírez. Metodología de la Investigación, Medicina Veterinaria e Ingeniería Agronómica, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, elmercr@ucaldas.edu.co
María Elena Bernal Vera. Fitopatología, Metodología de la Investigación, Universidad de Caldas. Manizales, Colombia, marielberve@hotmail.com

A synthesis of the ideas of M. Foucault on scientific change is presented, characterized as a metatheoric model of scientific change, with emphasis on its archeological structure. It is applied to the transformation of natural history into evolutionary biology. Some general comments are advanced as well on the implementation of such model.

Palabras clave: scientific change, Foucault’s archaeological model, natural history , evolutionary biology, Cuvier, Darwin

8. EVALUACIÓN DE EXPLICACIONES COGNITIVAS EN PSICOLOGÍA (Español)

Elmer CastaJonatan García Camposño Ramírez. Instituto de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, México, jongarcam@yahoo.com.mx

Psychology is a unique scientific discipline due to its disagreements at different levels. This paper explores controversies on particular subjects within cognitive psychology. Comparing different explanations about the autistic spectrum, I will offer a tool that can help evaluate such explanations. I have called this tool a “box of virtues”, which contains a set of virtues divided into epistemic, analytical, pragmatic and political ones. Since the interest of the paper is not limited to discuss the different explanations concerning autism, but psychological theories at large, I will try to show that the box of virtues can be generalized and used as a tool to asses different explanations in cognitive psychology that share the same subject.

Palabras clave: scientific explanations, cognition, psychology, scientific disagreements, epistemic virtues, autism, reasoning

9. INTRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS (English)

Teresa Kwiatkowska. Philosophy Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, tkwiatkowska@yahoo.com

Palabras clave: ethics, environmental ethics

10. HACIA UNA ÉTICA BIOCULTURAL PLANETARIA INTERREGIONAL: FILOSOFÍA AMBIENTAL DE CAMPO Y ESTUDIOS SOCIO-ECOLÓGICOS A LARGO PLAZO DESDE EL CABO DE HORNOS, CHILE (Español)

Ricardo Rozzi. Departamento de Filosofía y Religión, University of North Texas, USA. Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Universidad de Magallanes, Chile. Programa Internacional de Conservación Biocultural Subantártica, rozzi@unt.edu

Amid the global society governed by a neoliberal economic discourse that is alienated from biological and cultural diversity, there are numerous subaltern voices that express a clear understanding of the intimate connections between the well-being of humans and the well-being of other-than-human cohabitants in their regional urban and rural ecosystems. What can we do to enhance the ability to listen to these subordinated voices and reconnect global society with the diversity of humans and other than humans that cohabit on the planet? The Earth Stewardship initiative from the ESA, while laudable in its aim, has two major limitations: 1) geographical gaps in the coverage of long-term ecological research sites on the planet, since these sites are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere omitting the Southern one; 2) philosophical gaps in the coverage of the epistemological, political, and ethical dimensions in international long term sodo-ecological research programs, since these programs tend to reduce the social to economic— they even replace the adjective “socio-ecological” with “socio-economic.” In this essay I analyze both limitations, and present the contribution we have forged through the creation of the Chilean Network of Socio-Ecological Long-Term Studies and the Environmental Philosophy Methodological Approach that integrates ecological sdences and environmental ethics into biocultural conservation.

Palabras clave: Human well-being, other-than-human cohabitants. Earth Stewardship initiative, long term socio-ecological research programs. Red Chilena de Estudios SodoEcológicos a Largo Plazo, Environmental Philosophy Methodological Approach

11. UNNATURALNESS (English)

Alan Holland. Emeritus Professor of Applied Philosophy, Philosophy Department, Lancaster University, UK, a.holland@lancaster.ac.uk

A popular objection to various applications of biotechnology is that they are ‘unnatural.’ The objection is usually dismissed by academics and policy-makers alike. Sometimes it is treated by them as a mere expression of distaste. At other times ‘being unnatural’ is confused with ‘being artificial,’ a confusion which then feeds the misguided observation that if you object to unnaturalness as such, you will end up objecting to almost everything that humans do. Either way, the supposed consequence is that the objection can safely be ignored. In response, this paper takes some initial steps towards rescuing the concept of unnaturalness as a potential term of critical appraisal in public policy. First, an analysis of the concept is offered that differentiates it from concepts with which it is commonly confused and identifies that feature of a thing, event or action that the term is commonly used to designate. Second, this analysis is used to illustrate the kinds of discrimination that the term, thus understood, might usefully be deployed to express. It is concluded that the concept of ‘unnaturalness’ could mark out a valuable space for critical reflection both in the environmental sphere and, increasingly, in the sphere of medical technology.

Palabras clave: Artificial, nature, natural, culture, biotechnology, medical interventions, critical reflection, norm of nature, normal, abnormal, ordinary, extraordinary.

12. APROXIMACIONES A LA PACHAMAMA, AL SUMAK KAWSAY Y AL JOPÓI: HACIA UNA ÉTICA AMBIENTAL DE INSPIRACIÓN INDOAMERICANA (Español)

Dani O. Sotelo. Doctorado en Filosofía Moral y Política, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, oviedosotelo@yahoo.com

In American indigenous cultures exist paradigms, beliefs and concepts that posit a better relationship between human beings and nature —and/or its results— including Mother Earth, communal reciprocity networks, harmonious coexistence or living well, and an aspiration to the “Land without Evil.” We analyze the worldviews and knowledges of such indigenous peoples in order to inspire environmental ethics toward new approaches, beyond its current centrism (anthropocentrism, biocentrism, ecocentrism, and the like).
We put forward the idea of considering mankind as a “part” of nature, thus promoting life in fullness, where the satisfaction of needs is not consumerismwaste, and where upgrading the community life both with other people and with other living beings is possible.

Palabras clave: Mother Earth, harmonious coexistence, living well, indigenous worldviews, guarani, Land without Evil

13. A FIRST ENCOUNTER: FRENCH ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY FROM AN ANGLO-AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE (English)

J. Baird Callicott.. istinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and formerly Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Texas. Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, callicott@unt.edu

The “French exception” could be many things—language purity, cultural assimilation of immigrants, federalism counterbalanced by labor unionism, popular intellectualism. The French exception in environmental philosophy is constituted by humanism and the replacement of ethics by politics. Anglo-American environmental ethics makes of local nature a moral patient. In the French humanistic politics of global nature, global nature is indeterminate. Science incompletely represents global nature in both senses of the word “represents.” As an object global, nature is under-determined by a science incapable of so wide a grasp. And as subject in law, science speaks on behalf of a mute and indifferent nature, while policies regarding nature as an agent of powerful effect are decided in the political arena.

Palabras clave: french exception, ecology, environmentalism, French environmental philosophy, humanism, M. Serres, C. Larrère, nature, nature as political

14. ENVIRONMENT, MATHEMATICS AND THE BEST SOLUTION TO STOP NATURAL WORLD DESTRUCTION (English)

Teresa Kwiatkowska. Philosophy Department, UAM-Iztapalapa, México, tkwiatkowska@yahoo.com
Wojciech Szatzschneider. Escuela de Actuaría, Universidad Anahuac del Norte, México, wojciech@anahuac.mx

First, we discuss the use and misuse of mathematics that have been applied to apparently solve environmental problems. We then explore a new kind of environmental cooperation called fusion, in order to analyze the optimal way of using environmental funds, private or public, compulsory or voluntary contributions. We will work with mathematical models, yet our results do not significantly depend on them nor on the parameters chosen. We believe that the specification of models and their particular parameters is the biggest flaw in the application of mathematics in environmental sciences.

Palabras clave: solutions to environmental problems, mathematical models, fusion, environmental funds, parameter, Bayesian approach, Principal-Agent method

15. LA PSICOLOGÍA COGNOSCITIVA: EJEMPLO EMINENTE DE INTERDISCIPLINA (Español)

Víctor Manuel Solís Macías. Laboratorio de Cognición, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, labcogvm@gmail.com

We suggest that cognitive psychology is an outstanding case of scientific multidisciplinary approach. Our claim is grounded on the basis that within psychology no other approach has more varied origins than cognitive psychology. Its sources, internal and external, are equally varied. We will talk here of the main external sources: (1) The mathematical theory of communication; (2) linguistics; (3) signal detection theory, and (4) computational theory.

Palabras clave: cognitive psychology, multidisciplinary approach, mathematical theory of communication, linguistics, signal detection theory, computational theory.

16. FLEXIBILIDAD, RESTRICCIÓN Y RECONOCIMIENTO DE CAUSALIDAD DE LA CONDUCTA: UNA INTERPRETACIÓN COMPARATIVA DEL CONCEPTO DE “LIBERTAD” (Español)

Augusto Montiel Castro. Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma. México, a.j.montiel@centrodarwin-uam.mx
Jorge Martínez Contreras. Centro Darwin de Pensamiento Evolucionista. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Unidades Iztapalapa y Lerma, jomaco@xanum.uam.mx

The concept “liberty” has been revised in great depth by multiple authors from several disciplines. Since the XIX century, the modern evolutionary theory opens its study as an evolutionary capacity and a cognitive process. Its components can be identified in other species by understanding its behavioral or cognitive correlates, as it is often attempted for other complex phenomena (“empathy”, “love”, “intelligence”, and so on) that are similarly based on the interaction of a variety of processes at different levels of organization. Based on empirical evidence, this work analyses the degree by which three necessary components (while probably insufficient) of the de faculty referred to as “liberty” can be found in non-human organisms: (i) the degree of behavioral flexibility; (ii) the capacity for voluntary behavioral restriction, and (iii) the capacity for recognition of responsibility.

Palabras clave: cognitive psychology, multidisciplinary approach, mathematical theory of communication, linguistics, signal detection theory, computational theory

17. LA RELACIÓN SUEÑOS-CEREBRO Y SUS MODELOS (Español)

Alejandra Rosales Lagarde. Estancia posdoctoral, Posgrado en Ciencias Cognitivas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México, alexiaro@rocketmail.com

Every day more is known about genetics, neurochemistry, magnetic, electric and metabolic activity of the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep stage, related to a particular oneiric consciousness. By contrast, the scientific study about the oneiric consciousness is relatively scarce. At least four questions are pertinent. Learning more about sleep mechanisms allows a better understanding of the oneiric consciousness? What relationships stand between the oneiric consciousness, its physiology and neuroanatomy? What models relate them? How are the dreams-brain postures portrayed within the models? After a brief examine of Descartes’ posture and his figures, and of Hobson’s miscellaneous dream-brain stances and his mostly physiological models, I propose the adoption of the monist patterned double aspect posture of J. L. Díaz, one that could be configured in a model that would be similar to actual polysomnographic records and should contain psychological phenomena (as bizarreness) linked to Corsi-Cabrera’s physiological data.

Palabras clave: mind-body problem, dreams-brain problem, oneiric consciousness, dreams, brain, models, REM sleep, emergent monism, double aspect monism

18. ALTRUISMO Y EMPATÍA: CORRELATOS NEURALES Y DIFERENCIAS DE GÉNERO (Español)

Lucrecia Burges Cruz. Filosofía Moral, Departamento de Filosofía y Trabajo Social, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, España, lburges@uib.es

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of sex differences in altruistic behavior from an evolutionary perspective, by looking at the latest research on neuroetic and sex differential neuroanatomy concerning altruism and empathy. We assume that women have an adaptive advantage for altruistic behavior, which has biological basis, genetic and hormonal, that has also been reinforced phylogenetically, throughout human evolution, from sex roles division. These differences in behavior can be seen when in men and women different brain areas are activated in relation to empathy and altruism.

Palabras clave: altruism, empathy, human evolution, neuroscience, sex, gender, adaptive advantage

19. LA FILOSOFÍA EN LA ERA DE LOS “CYBORGS” (Español)

Anna Stany.. Departamento de Filosofía. Área de conocimiento: Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, España, anna.estany@uab.cat

En las últimas décadas ha surgido una serie de voces que anuncian “el fin de” diversos logros culturales que a lo largo de los siglos han constituido las señas de identidad de la humanidad. Una muestra de ello es la tesis del “fin de la ciencia“ de J. Horgan (1997) y la del “fin de la historia” de F. Fukuyama (1989). ¿Podemos hablar del “fin de la filosofía”? No cabe duda que podemos encontrar posicionamientos al respecto desde perspectivas distintas, es decir, podemos interpretar algunas de las concepciones a lo largo de la historia de la filosofía sobre su muerte o, al menos, su enfermedad. En la actualidad hay dos líneas fundamentales por las que puede cuestionarse la filosofía como referencia en torno a la cual gira el saber. Una de estas líneas se basa en el hecho de que, a lo largo de la historia, se han ido desgajando los distintos saberes particulares que en un principio formaban parte de la filosofía; la otra es la que se conoce como “naturalización de la filosofía” o “programa naturalizador”.

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, cyborg

20. ¿PARA QUÉ SIRVE UN FILÓSOFO? (Español)

María José Frápolli. Departamento de Filosofía I. Universidad de Granada, España, frapolli@ugr.es

La pregunta que toda generación de estudiantes de filosofía plantea en algún momento es: ¿esto para qué sirve? La invitación de Ludus Vitalis es una oportunidad para ofrecer una respuesta sosegada y no tópica de en qué consiste ser un filósofo en la sociedad contemporánea.

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, filósofo

21. EXIGENCIA FILOSÓFICA Y RESTAURACIÓN DE LA METAFÍSICA (Español)

Víctor Gómez Pin. Departamento de Filosofía. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, España, victor.gomez@uab.es

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, metafísica, filosofía

22. TODOS TENEMOS CREENCIAS FILOSÓFICAS (Español)

Pascual F. Martínez Freire. Departamento de Filosofía. Universidad de Málaga, España, martinez.freire@gmail.com

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, creencias filosóficas, filosofía

23. Ciencia, ¿Para Qué? Una Cuestión Filosófica (Español)

Miguel A. Quintanilla Fisac. Instituto de Estudios de la Ciencia y la Tecnología. Universidad de Salamanca, España, maquinta@usal.es

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis

24. APOLOGÍA DE LA IDIOTEZ (Español)

Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte. Departamento de Metafísica y Teoría del Conocimiento, Universidad de Valencia, España, vicente.sanfelix@uv.es

Elogio de la Filosofía Concedámoslo, si sólo tuviéramos el castellano, incluso el latín, el título de este escrito sería una insensatez. Porque idiotez es, según el diccionario de nuestra Real Academia, el dicho o el hecho propio del idiota; y éste, un profundo deficiente psíquico, o por lo menos un corto de entendederas, o un inculto, o, en última instancia, un engreído sin justificación alguna. De modo que, si idiotez es imbecilidad, tontería, incultura o engreimiento, ¿quién, salvo un rematado idiota, iba a hacer su apología?
La idiotez sólo podría ser vindicada si, aparte de éstos, tuviera otro sentido. Y aquí es donde el idioma griego puede venir en nuestra ayuda. Porque “idiótes”, aunque también tenía en la lengua de Platón una connotación peyorativa, refería fundamentalmente una condición, una forma de ser, cuya desacreditación, al menos desde nuestra perspectiva, necesitaría cierta justificación. “Idiótes” era el simple particular e “Idiotismós” el género de vida que practicaba, dedicado a la “Idioteía”, sus propios y privados asuntos.

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, idiotez, incultura

25. THE EARLY RATIONALITY OF TRUST AND SKEPTICISM (Español)

Hugo Viciana. Institut d’Histoire et Philosophie des Sciences, Paris-1, ENS, CNRS, France, Hugo.Viciana@normalesup.org
Antonio Gaitán. Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, España

Palabras clave: eseña bibliográfica, reseña

Subir

¿PARA QUÉ SIRVE UN FILÓSOFO? (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

María José Frápolli. Departamento de Filosofía I. Universidad de Granada, España, frapolli@ugr.es

La pregunta que toda generación de estudiantes de filosofía plantea en algún momento es: ¿esto para qué sirve? La invitación de Ludus Vitalis es una oportunidad para ofrecer una respuesta sosegada y no tópica de en qué consiste ser un filósofo en la sociedad contemporánea.

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, filósofo

“EL ORIGEN DE LAS ESPECIES” EN EL CONTEXTO (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Luis Espinoza Soto. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, luis.espinosas@usach.cl

The objective of this work is to summarize the historical and social influences of Darwin’s theory presented in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. I highlight the concept of “science” as used in the scientific revolution, a calling to explain how natural elements function regarding observable causes. “Natural theology” will share its functionalist approach with Darwin’s theory. The Age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution will shape a belligerent political climate, in which the new ideas on transformation will be related to the revolt against the established social order (reflected in the 1829-1830 debates between Cuvier and Geoffoy). In England, the core of the Industrial Revolution, biological ideas were specially considered from a social viewpoint. Finally, I will mention some biographical elements of Darwin, his liberal family atmosphere, the places he visited during his journey, the political economy of his times, and his relations to practical livestock breeders

Palabras clave: darwin, social context of theories, natural theology, French Revolution, Enlightenment, Malthus, Smith, Kropotkin, Cuvier, Geoffroy

A FIRST ENCOUNTER: FRENCH ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY FROM AN ANGLO-AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

J. Baird Callicott.. istinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and formerly Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Texas. Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, callicott@unt.edu

The “French exception” could be many things—language purity, cultural assimilation of immigrants, federalism counterbalanced by labor unionism, popular intellectualism. The French exception in environmental philosophy is constituted by humanism and the replacement of ethics by politics. Anglo-American environmental ethics makes of local nature a moral patient. In the French humanistic politics of global nature, global nature is indeterminate. Science incompletely represents global nature in both senses of the word “represents.” As an object global, nature is under-determined by a science incapable of so wide a grasp. And as subject in law, science speaks on behalf of a mute and indifferent nature, while policies regarding nature as an agent of powerful effect are decided in the political arena.

Palabras clave: french exception, ecology, environmentalism, French environmental philosophy, humanism, M. Serres, C. Larrère, nature, nature as political

ALTRUISMO Y EMPATÍA: CORRELATOS NEURALES Y DIFERENCIAS DE GÉNERO (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Lucrecia Burges Cruz. Filosofía Moral, Departamento de Filosofía y Trabajo Social, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, España, lburges@uib.es

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of sex differences in altruistic behavior from an evolutionary perspective, by looking at the latest research on neuroetic and sex differential neuroanatomy concerning altruism and empathy. We assume that women have an adaptive advantage for altruistic behavior, which has biological basis, genetic and hormonal, that has also been reinforced phylogenetically, throughout human evolution, from sex roles division. These differences in behavior can be seen when in men and women different brain areas are activated in relation to empathy and altruism.

Palabras clave: altruism, empathy, human evolution, neuroscience, sex, gender, adaptive advantage

APOLOGÍA DE LA IDIOTEZ (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte. Departamento de Metafísica y Teoría del Conocimiento, Universidad de Valencia, España, vicente.sanfelix@uv.es

Elogio de la Filosofía Concedámoslo, si sólo tuviéramos el castellano, incluso el latín, el título de este escrito sería una insensatez. Porque idiotez es, según el diccionario de nuestra Real Academia, el dicho o el hecho propio del idiota; y éste, un profundo deficiente psíquico, o por lo menos un corto de entendederas, o un inculto, o, en última instancia, un engreído sin justificación alguna. De modo que, si idiotez es imbecilidad, tontería, incultura o engreimiento, ¿quién, salvo un rematado idiota, iba a hacer su apología?
La idiotez sólo podría ser vindicada si, aparte de éstos, tuviera otro sentido. Y aquí es donde el idioma griego puede venir en nuestra ayuda. Porque “idiótes”, aunque también tenía en la lengua de Platón una connotación peyorativa, refería fundamentalmente una condición, una forma de ser, cuya desacreditación, al menos desde nuestra perspectiva, necesitaría cierta justificación. “Idiótes” era el simple particular e “Idiotismós” el género de vida que practicaba, dedicado a la “Idioteía”, sus propios y privados asuntos.

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, idiotez, incultura

APROXIMACIONES A LA PACHAMAMA, AL SUMAK KAWSAY Y AL JOPÓI: HACIA UNA ÉTICA AMBIENTAL DE INSPIRACIÓN INDOAMERICANA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Dani O. Sotelo. Doctorado en Filosofía Moral y Política, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, oviedosotelo@yahoo.com

In American indigenous cultures exist paradigms, beliefs and concepts that posit a better relationship between human beings and nature —and/or its results— including Mother Earth, communal reciprocity networks, harmonious coexistence or living well, and an aspiration to the “Land without Evil.” We analyze the worldviews and knowledges of such indigenous peoples in order to inspire environmental ethics toward new approaches, beyond its current centrism (anthropocentrism, biocentrism, ecocentrism, and the like).
We put forward the idea of considering mankind as a “part” of nature, thus promoting life in fullness, where the satisfaction of needs is not consumerismwaste, and where upgrading the community life both with other people and with other living beings is possible.

Palabras clave: Mother Earth, harmonious coexistence, living well, indigenous worldviews, guarani, Land without Evil

CAPTURING THE ORDER IN NATURE AND DARWIN´S TREE OF LIFE (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Erica Torrens. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, torrens@ciencias.unam.mx
Ana Barahona. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, ana.barahona@ciencias.unam.mx

Following the publication in 1859 of On the Origin of Species, perception of natural “Began to change from a ‘creation plan’, known for similarities and differences among species, to that of ‘kinship’, known for genealogical relationships. The achievement of a diagram to represent affinities through evolutionary relationships became a major enterprise for many naturalists. Although Darwin posed the challenge to depict the common descent and evolutionary relationships for living beings in the form of a ‘Tree of Life’, he was not the first to employ the tree metaphor in the life sciences, as he stated at the beginning of his famous arboreal metaphor: “the affinities of all the beings of the same class have sometimes been represented by a great tree.” Who were those authors that represented affinities of beings in the form of trees and when these trees appeared? Were there other metaphors to represent the order found in nature?

Palabras clave: natural system, Charles Darwin, Tree of Life, branching diagrams, natural affinities, common descent, genealogical relationships

Ciencia, ¿Para Qué? Una Cuestión Filosófica (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Miguel A. Quintanilla Fisac. Instituto de Estudios de la Ciencia y la Tecnología. Universidad de Salamanca, España, maquinta@usal.es

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis

CONTROVERSIES OVER THE EVOLUTIONARY ROLE OF PARANASAL SINUS PNEUMATIZATION IN HUMANS AND NEANDERTHALS AS AN ADAPTATION TO EXTREME COLD (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Vicente Dressino. Cátedra de Antropología Biológica IV, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentina, vdress@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar
Susana Gisela Lamas. Cátedra de Lógica y Metodología de las Ciencias, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentina, sglamas@yahoo.com.ar

In this paper, we examine a case of scientific controversy over the evolving role of the paranasal sinuses, comparing Neanderthals and humans by analyzing two rival hypotheses. The first hypothesis states that the paranasal sinuses do not represent an adaptation to extreme cold, while the second claims the contrary. The two articles partially use the same database and employ identical methodologies and evolutionary theoretical assumptions. This example is interesting because, in terms of Nudler’s concepts of controversial and non-controversial spaces, the problem lies in the latter, i.e., the biases of the two articles and their mistakes. Our paper highlights the misunderstandings that can arise when an attempt is made to analyze a complex structure from an evolutionary perspective using two-dimensional analytical techniques, that is to say, explaining a trait in isolation and, consequently, losing an integrated approach to the organism and its multiple interactions with the environment.

Palabras clave: scientific controversy, paranasal sinuses, Neanderthals, humans, complex systems, modularity, controversial spaces, methodologies, evolutionary explanations, philosophy of biology

EL MODELO DE FOUCAULT APLICADO AL CAMBIO DE LA HISTORIA NATURAL A LA BIOLOGÍA EVOLUCIONISTA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Elmer Castaño Ramírez. Metodología de la Investigación, Medicina Veterinaria e Ingeniería Agronómica, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, elmercr@ucaldas.edu.co
María Elena Bernal Vera. Fitopatología, Metodología de la Investigación, Universidad de Caldas. Manizales, Colombia, marielberve@hotmail.com

A synthesis of the ideas of M. Foucault on scientific change is presented, characterized as a metatheoric model of scientific change, with emphasis on its archeological structure. It is applied to the transformation of natural history into evolutionary biology. Some general comments are advanced as well on the implementation of such model.

Palabras clave: scientific change, Foucault’s archaeological model, natural history , evolutionary biology, Cuvier, Darwin

ENVIRONMENT, MATHEMATICS AND THE BEST SOLUTION TO STOP NATURAL WORLD DESTRUCTION (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Teresa Kwiatkowska. Philosophy Department, UAM-Iztapalapa, México, tkwiatkowska@yahoo.com
Wojciech Szatzschneider. Escuela de Actuaría, Universidad Anahuac del Norte, México, wojciech@anahuac.mx

First, we discuss the use and misuse of mathematics that have been applied to apparently solve environmental problems. We then explore a new kind of environmental cooperation called fusion, in order to analyze the optimal way of using environmental funds, private or public, compulsory or voluntary contributions. We will work with mathematical models, yet our results do not significantly depend on them nor on the parameters chosen. We believe that the specification of models and their particular parameters is the biggest flaw in the application of mathematics in environmental sciences.

Palabras clave: solutions to environmental problems, mathematical models, fusion, environmental funds, parameter, Bayesian approach, Principal-Agent method

EVALUACIÓN DE EXPLICACIONES COGNITIVAS EN PSICOLOGÍA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Elmer CastaJonatan García Camposño Ramírez. Instituto de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, México, jongarcam@yahoo.com.mx

Psychology is a unique scientific discipline due to its disagreements at different levels. This paper explores controversies on particular subjects within cognitive psychology. Comparing different explanations about the autistic spectrum, I will offer a tool that can help evaluate such explanations. I have called this tool a “box of virtues”, which contains a set of virtues divided into epistemic, analytical, pragmatic and political ones. Since the interest of the paper is not limited to discuss the different explanations concerning autism, but psychological theories at large, I will try to show that the box of virtues can be generalized and used as a tool to asses different explanations in cognitive psychology that share the same subject.

Palabras clave: scientific explanations, cognition, psychology, scientific disagreements, epistemic virtues, autism, reasoning

EXIGENCIA FILOSÓFICA Y RESTAURACIÓN DE LA METAFÍSICA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Víctor Gómez Pin. Departamento de Filosofía. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, España, victor.gomez@uab.es

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, metafísica, filosofía

EXPLICACIONES SELECCIONISTAS HISTÓRICAS Y AHISTÓRICAS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Santiago Ginnobili. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Universidad nacional de Quilmes, Argentina, santi75.wordpress.com

The historical character of natural selection theory has been controversial. In this article, I will focus on the ambiguity of the uses of the expression “natural selection theory”. Sometimes it is used to refer to the theory that provides the mechanism by which organisms acquire traits that allow them to survive in their environment. It is also used to refer to the theory that explains why certain types of organisms within a population have higher reproductive success than others. This distinction solves some problematic issues when referring to such theory.

Palabras clave: atural selection, historical explanations, genetic explanations, mechanism, Fodor & Piattelli-Palmarini, explanandum of natural selection, Lucia Federico, metatheoretical structuralism, natural laws

FLEXIBILIDAD, RESTRICCIÓN Y RECONOCIMIENTO DE CAUSALIDAD DE LA CONDUCTA: UNA INTERPRETACIÓN COMPARATIVA DEL CONCEPTO DE “LIBERTAD” (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Augusto Montiel Castro. Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma. México, a.j.montiel@centrodarwin-uam.mx
Jorge Martínez Contreras. Centro Darwin de Pensamiento Evolucionista. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Unidades Iztapalapa y Lerma, jomaco@xanum.uam.mx

The concept “liberty” has been revised in great depth by multiple authors from several disciplines. Since the XIX century, the modern evolutionary theory opens its study as an evolutionary capacity and a cognitive process. Its components can be identified in other species by understanding its behavioral or cognitive correlates, as it is often attempted for other complex phenomena (“empathy”, “love”, “intelligence”, and so on) that are similarly based on the interaction of a variety of processes at different levels of organization. Based on empirical evidence, this work analyses the degree by which three necessary components (while probably insufficient) of the de faculty referred to as “liberty” can be found in non-human organisms: (i) the degree of behavioral flexibility; (ii) the capacity for voluntary behavioral restriction, and (iii) the capacity for recognition of responsibility.

Palabras clave: cognitive psychology, multidisciplinary approach, mathematical theory of communication, linguistics, signal detection theory, computational theory

HACIA UNA ÉTICA BIOCULTURAL PLANETARIA INTERREGIONAL: FILOSOFÍA AMBIENTAL DE CAMPO Y ESTUDIOS SOCIO-ECOLÓGICOS A LARGO PLAZO DESDE EL CABO DE HORNOS, CHILE (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Ricardo Rozzi. Departamento de Filosofía y Religión, University of North Texas, USA. Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Universidad de Magallanes, Chile. Programa Internacional de Conservación Biocultural Subantártica, rozzi@unt.edu

Amid the global society governed by a neoliberal economic discourse that is alienated from biological and cultural diversity, there are numerous subaltern voices that express a clear understanding of the intimate connections between the well-being of humans and the well-being of other-than-human cohabitants in their regional urban and rural ecosystems. What can we do to enhance the ability to listen to these subordinated voices and reconnect global society with the diversity of humans and other than humans that cohabit on the planet? The Earth Stewardship initiative from the ESA, while laudable in its aim, has two major limitations: 1) geographical gaps in the coverage of long-term ecological research sites on the planet, since these sites are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere omitting the Southern one; 2) philosophical gaps in the coverage of the epistemological, political, and ethical dimensions in international long term sodo-ecological research programs, since these programs tend to reduce the social to economic— they even replace the adjective “socio-ecological” with “socio-economic.” In this essay I analyze both limitations, and present the contribution we have forged through the creation of the Chilean Network of Socio-Ecological Long-Term Studies and the Environmental Philosophy Methodological Approach that integrates ecological sdences and environmental ethics into biocultural conservation.

Palabras clave: Human well-being, other-than-human cohabitants. Earth Stewardship initiative, long term socio-ecological research programs. Red Chilena de Estudios SodoEcológicos a Largo Plazo, Environmental Philosophy Methodological Approach

INTRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Teresa Kwiatkowska. Philosophy Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, tkwiatkowska@yahoo.com

Palabras clave: ethics, environmental ethics

LA FILOSOFÍA EN LA ERA DE LOS “CYBORGS” (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Anna Stany.. Departamento de Filosofía. Área de conocimiento: Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, España, anna.estany@uab.cat

En las últimas décadas ha surgido una serie de voces que anuncian “el fin de” diversos logros culturales que a lo largo de los siglos han constituido las señas de identidad de la humanidad. Una muestra de ello es la tesis del “fin de la ciencia“ de J. Horgan (1997) y la del “fin de la historia” de F. Fukuyama (1989). ¿Podemos hablar del “fin de la filosofía”? No cabe duda que podemos encontrar posicionamientos al respecto desde perspectivas distintas, es decir, podemos interpretar algunas de las concepciones a lo largo de la historia de la filosofía sobre su muerte o, al menos, su enfermedad. En la actualidad hay dos líneas fundamentales por las que puede cuestionarse la filosofía como referencia en torno a la cual gira el saber. Una de estas líneas se basa en el hecho de que, a lo largo de la historia, se han ido desgajando los distintos saberes particulares que en un principio formaban parte de la filosofía; la otra es la que se conoce como “naturalización de la filosofía” o “programa naturalizador”.

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, cyborg

LA PSICOLOGÍA COGNOSCITIVA: EJEMPLO EMINENTE DE INTERDISCIPLINA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Víctor Manuel Solís Macías. Laboratorio de Cognición, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, labcogvm@gmail.com

We suggest that cognitive psychology is an outstanding case of scientific multidisciplinary approach. Our claim is grounded on the basis that within psychology no other approach has more varied origins than cognitive psychology. Its sources, internal and external, are equally varied. We will talk here of the main external sources: (1) The mathematical theory of communication; (2) linguistics; (3) signal detection theory, and (4) computational theory.

Palabras clave: cognitive psychology, multidisciplinary approach, mathematical theory of communication, linguistics, signal detection theory, computational theory.

LA RELACIÓN SUEÑOS-CEREBRO Y SUS MODELOS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Alejandra Rosales Lagarde. Estancia posdoctoral, Posgrado en Ciencias Cognitivas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México, alexiaro@rocketmail.com

Every day more is known about genetics, neurochemistry, magnetic, electric and metabolic activity of the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep stage, related to a particular oneiric consciousness. By contrast, the scientific study about the oneiric consciousness is relatively scarce. At least four questions are pertinent. Learning more about sleep mechanisms allows a better understanding of the oneiric consciousness? What relationships stand between the oneiric consciousness, its physiology and neuroanatomy? What models relate them? How are the dreams-brain postures portrayed within the models? After a brief examine of Descartes’ posture and his figures, and of Hobson’s miscellaneous dream-brain stances and his mostly physiological models, I propose the adoption of the monist patterned double aspect posture of J. L. Díaz, one that could be configured in a model that would be similar to actual polysomnographic records and should contain psychological phenomena (as bizarreness) linked to Corsi-Cabrera’s physiological data.

Palabras clave: mind-body problem, dreams-brain problem, oneiric consciousness, dreams, brain, models, REM sleep, emergent monism, double aspect monism

LAS ESPECIES COMO LINAJES DE POBLACIONES MICROEVOLUTIVAMENTE INTERCONECTADAS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Gustavo Caponi. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil, gustavoandrescaponi@gmail.com

Species can be defined as a lineage of populations where microevolutionary isolation was never set up. ‘Micro-evolutionary isolation’ between two populations occur, if and only if, the micro-evolutionary processes affecting one of them (namely, natural selection, genetic drift, sexual selection, mutation and/or migration) cannot reach the other. This is a delimitation of the evolutionary species concept that is compatible and in accordance with the conceptual division of labor that some authors have proposed to solve the problems raised when defining the concept ‘species’.

Palabras clave: definition of species, evolutionary species concept, micro-evolutionary isoliation

THE EARLY RATIONALITY OF TRUST AND SKEPTICISM (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Hugo Viciana. Institut d’Histoire et Philosophie des Sciences, Paris-1, ENS, CNRS, France, Hugo.Viciana@normalesup.org
Antonio Gaitán. Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, España

Palabras clave: eseña bibliográfica, reseña

THE FEATHERED ONE IN THE FLOCK OF MODELS: GALLUS GALLUS AS A MODEL ORGANISM FOR DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Miguel López Paleta. Grupo de estudios Sociales de la Ciencia. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, miguelpaleta@comunidad.unam.mx
Edna Suárez Díaz. Grupo de estudios Sociales de la Ciencia. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, ednasuarez@ciencias.unam.mx

This paper aims to provide a critical picture of the role of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) as a “model organism” in developmental biology. As such, it seeks to be a contribution in the field of historical epistemology, broadly defined. We take into account the characterization of model organisms by Ankeny and Leonelli (2011) and, secondarily, the one developed by Rheinberger (2010), in order to discuss the ways in which chicken fulfils, or not, the epistemic and material features of current model organisms. In a similar manner, we bring up some new arguments to those that chicken researchers have provide when facing the fact that Gallus gallus is not an organism frequently used in certain genetic research contexts. Finally, we consider some interesting topics in the philosophical reflection on model organisms that could be illuminated by the case of the domestic fowl.

Palabras clave: model organisms, Gallus gallus, chicken, developmental biology, modeling, representation, vertebrate biology, philosophy of biology, scientific practic

TODOS TENEMOS CREENCIAS FILOSÓFICAS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Pascual F. Martínez Freire. Departamento de Filosofía. Universidad de Málaga, España, martinez.freire@gmail.com

Palabras clave: Foro Ludus Vitalis, creencias filosóficas, filosofía

UNNATURALNESS (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 41 (2014)

Alan Holland. Emeritus Professor of Applied Philosophy, Philosophy Department, Lancaster University, UK, a.holland@lancaster.ac.uk

A popular objection to various applications of biotechnology is that they are ‘unnatural.’ The objection is usually dismissed by academics and policy-makers alike. Sometimes it is treated by them as a mere expression of distaste. At other times ‘being unnatural’ is confused with ‘being artificial,’ a confusion which then feeds the misguided observation that if you object to unnaturalness as such, you will end up objecting to almost everything that humans do. Either way, the supposed consequence is that the objection can safely be ignored. In response, this paper takes some initial steps towards rescuing the concept of unnaturalness as a potential term of critical appraisal in public policy. First, an analysis of the concept is offered that differentiates it from concepts with which it is commonly confused and identifies that feature of a thing, event or action that the term is commonly used to designate. Second, this analysis is used to illustrate the kinds of discrimination that the term, thus understood, might usefully be deployed to express. It is concluded that the concept of ‘unnaturalness’ could mark out a valuable space for critical reflection both in the environmental sphere and, increasingly, in the sphere of medical technology.

Palabras clave: Artificial, nature, natural, culture, biotechnology, medical interventions, critical reflection, norm of nature, normal, abnormal, ordinary, extraordinary.