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Número. 38. Vol. XX. [IF 1691 EQUALS=”LUDUS VITALIS”] Ludus Vitalis – [/IF 1691]Revista de Filosofía de las Ciencias de la Vida

Revista científica. Colección: Ludus Vitalis. 2012, Ciudad de México (México). Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos Políticos y Sociales Vicente lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universitat de les Illes Balears, La Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

ISSN: 1133-5165

Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Sociales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Arqueología, Etnología, Psicología, Filosofía, Religión.
Palabras clave: evolucionismo, epistemología, mente-cuerpo, conducta, técnica, naturaleza

Descripción:

Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, epistemología, relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento conducta, lo humano, técnica y naturaleza y el juego de los conceptos.

1. LA FUERTE IMPRONTA GRADUALISTA DE DARWIN (Español)

Alberto A. Makinistian. Paleoantropología y Evolución, Facultad de Humanidades y Artes, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina, amakinistian@citynet.net.ar

We find it undeniable that gradualism is an essential part of Darwinism. What is more, we think that, devoid of gradualism, authentic Darwinism is undermined. In this article we intend to show that Darwin was absolutely convinced that his theory could not work if it were not closely linked to a gradualist perspective.

Palabras clave: gradualismo, uniformismo, variaciones, selección natural, variedad, especie

2. COMPREHENSIVE DARWINISM (English)

Jasper Doomen. Leiden University, Steenschwr, jasperdoomen@yahoo.com

Darwinism has become an encompassing theory, leaving the confines of science and accounting for all aspects of life. Such an outlook entails important consequences for the evaluation of life. In particular, organisms are considered mere means for species’ preservation and development, while reason is no special faculty, but rather an outgrowth of functions that are rudimentarily present in animals. Darwinism cannot, for that reason, be said to be ‘true’, but if Darwinism is the correct view, the implications for man are grave, no purpose or meaning of life being discernable. Darwinists are accordingly faced with the question to why they continue their inquiries.

Palabras clave: darwinismo, darwinismo comprensivo, nihilismo, reduccionismo, platonismo, Schopenhauer

3. WHY IS MODERN SYNTHESIS STILL IN FORCE? (English)

Juan Ernesto Calderón. Departamento de Filosofía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina, jecalderon99@yahoo.com

The Modern Synthesis has been object of harsh criticism. Nowadays, one of them stems from the ‘Intelligent Design Doctrine’. This doctrine questions the possibility of explaining the origin of novel living forms through the process of natural selection that acts on phenotypic characters. However, the Intelligent Design Doctrine does not reject Modern Synthesis in bloc because it accepts its contributions to understand the microevolutionary processes. The aims of this paper are: (i) To explain why the Modern Synthesis is still in force within the scientific community, and (ii) To show how the divide et impera strategy may clarify this situation.

Palabras clave: síntesis moderna, estrategia de divide et impera, macroevolución, microevolución, diseño inteligente, inducción pesimista, realismo, doctrina, teoría, verdad-semejanza

4. LA NOCIÓN DE ESQUEMA EN KUHN Y PIAGET: INTERACCIÓN DE FILOSOFÍA Y PSICOLOGÍA DE LA CIENCIA (Español)

Raúl Alberto Milone. Departamento de Filosofía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, Parque Gral. San Martín, 5500, Mendoza, Argentina. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Catamarca 147, 5500, Mendoza, Argentina, rm@logos.uncu.edu.ar

This contribution focuses on the notion of conceptual scheme and its role in the works of Thomas Kuhn and Jean Piaget. Whereas for the first it was a fundamental tool for analyzing the history and structure of Copernican revolution, for the second it constituted a crucial element for understanding and evaluating the development of the intelligence in children. We make a critical revision of both approaches to this notion in order to point out relationships, affinities and mutual influences between these authors.

Palabras clave: esquema, esquema conceptual, Kuhn, Piaget, filosofía de la ciencia, psicología de la ciencia

5. LE COMMENSALISME: D’UN CONCEPT MORAL A UN CONCEPT SCIENTIFIQUE (Français)

Brice Poreau. Laboratoire S2HEP, Sciences, Société, Historicité, Education, Pratiques, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon, France, bbcharles@hotmail.com

In the book entitled Les commensaux et les parasites dans le regne animal, published in 1875, Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden (1809-1894), a Belgian zoologist, put forward three different biological associations: parasitism, mutualism and commensalism. The last one considers an association with two different species: one partner benefits, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed, in a kind of stable equilibrium. In the first definitions given by Van Beneden in the 1860’s, the language style is not the same as we use in this definition. It is clearly an anthropomorphic point of view. Commensalism was seen then as a moral concept. In this article, we want to show the history of commensalism that transits from a “moral” concept to a scientific and biological one during the twentieth century.

Palabras clave: comensalismo, Pierre Joseph Van Beneden, asociaciones biológicas, concepto moral

6. ¿TODO ES REDUCIBLE A LA CIENCIA? CIENCIA Y PAZ / CEREBRO Y CULTURA (Español)

Roberto E. Mercadillo Caballero. Laboratorio C-12, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus UNAM, emmanuele.mercadillo@gmail.com

To think about if everything can be scientifically reducible involves a viewpoint on reality that simultaneously encompasses the notion of what “everything” means and the role of “reducibility,; of one phenomenon for explanatory purposes. Both aspects are diffuse and discussed within the neuroscientific current research. The discussion concerns the experimental design that has been applied in neurosciences over the past three decades, as well as the scientific interpretations of the cognitive processes under a materialistic perspective. This controversy ispatent in some current proposals aimed at the development of the so-called “Culture of Peace”, because it involves the acceptance of a violent reality encoded in biological and neurocognitive human systems, along with cultural variables that make up the history and transmission of such codes. In addition to the nature-culture discussions involving violence in the scientific field, the cultivation of peace is proposed as a structural change for the human society based on difficult operational accessible concepts within the experimental neuroscience, for example: solidarity or compassion. Although such proposals have been developed in the scientific field, their effect is projected in a political and cultural reality. From a neurocognitive perspective, this essay proposes the cultivation of peace as a model for thinking about how science reduces a phenomenon (peace) to influence a whole reality (the political and cultural structure), trough conceptual and methodological interactions provided by different scientific disciplines apparently distant.

Palabras clave: cerebro, cognición, compasión, complejidad, cultura, realidad, paz, ciencia, violencia, guerra

7. BIOLOGÍA, CUERPO Y AUTOCONCIENCIA: REFLEXIONES DESDE LA FENOMENOLOGÍA Y LA NEUROPSICOLOGÍA DE LA ACCIÓN (Español)

Andrés Segovia Cuellar. Grupo de Estudios Sobre Desarrollo Socio/moral, Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, asegovia.cc@gmail.com

The purpose of this paper is to understand cognition from the standpoint of biological autonomy, and how this phenomena is affirmed constantly through the interactions the organisms, endogenously and due to their own organization, establish with a meaningful world. The methodic study concerning the sense of self allow us to conclude that is in the active immersion of biological systems through their agency, within a significant environment, where several interactive situations emerge and affirm their identities by way of self-specifying processes. We propose to conceptually revisit the studies of self to acknowledge the active role that organisms play in the constitution of their experience and in the temporal structure of such experience. Moreover, such theory has to be built from a deep reflection on the biological basis of agency, the function of the brain as a mediator of homeostatic
regulation and action, and the acceptance of the first person’s perspective as ineludible to study consciousness. Finally, we reflect on the phenomenological aspects of schizophrenia and how within this pathology prevails the absence of a meaningful direction to the world and of a genuine sense of self through intentionality. Intentionality, indeed, is understood as that feature that gives direction to lived experience.

Palabras clave: biología e intencionalidad, conciencia de sí, neurodinámica, neuropsicología o acción, agencia, fenomenología

8. MODULARIDAD, EVOLUCIÓN, Y ONTOLOGÍA RELIGIOSA (Español)

Juan C. Vélez. Departamento de Humanidades, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Cali, Colombia, karlegion@yahoo.es

Should science study religion? In this paper I propose a way to understand the religious phenomena, based in its ontology, without excluding science, particularly cognitive sciences. Modularity of mind and evolutionary psychology can account for the origin of dualism and the teleology that underlies the minds that hosted religious beliefs. I will argue, from Dennett, Boyer and Dawkins naturalism, that religious phenomena is not a biological adaptation but a by-product of psychological mechanisms designed for another activities, such as the prediction of our and those of others behaviors, and the understanding of other living beings and natural phenomena.

Palabras clave: modularidad, evolución, cognición, adaptación, naturalización, religión

9. CLAVES PARA ENTENDER LA VIOLENCIA EN EL SIGLO. XXI (Español)

José Sanmartín Esplugues. Catedrático de Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia, Departamento de Filosofía, Universitat de Valencia, España, jsanmartinesplugues@gmail.com

This paper advances three stances. First, that fear is the key to the display of aggressiveness, whether defensive or offensive. Second, that violence is the behavior resulting from the aggressiveness put under the intentional control of consciousness and that the violence always occurs in a context of asymmetry of power. Third, that, when fear becomes chronic, violence tends to induce a syndrome of learned helplessness in victims, a very common syndrome in both gender-based violence as in the genocide in communities or in the psychological and economic violence perpetrated by the financial system today.

Palabras clave: miedo, agresividad, violencia, asimetría de poder, síndrome de indefensión aprendida, el sistema financiero

10. ¿MORFOLOGÍA EN MONOS? DISCUSIÓN CRÍTICA DE UN SUPUESTO PROCESO DE AFIJACIÓN EN MONOS EN ESTADO SALVAJE (Español)

Víctor M. Longa. Área de Lingüística General, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España, victormanuel.longa@usc.es
Juan J. Lopez Rivera. Área de Lingüística General, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España, juanjose.lopez.rivera@usc.es

This paper advances three stances. First, that fear is the key to the display of aggressiveness, whether defensive or offensive. Second, that violence is the behavior resulting from the aggressiveness put under the intentional control of consciousness and that the violence always occurs in a context of asymmetry of power. Third, that, when fear becomes chronic, violence tends to induce a syndrome of learned helplessness in victims, a very common syndrome in both gender-based violence as in the genocide in communities or in the psychological and economic violence perpetrated by the financial system today.

Palabras clave: miedo, agresividad, violencia, asimetría de poder, síndrome de indefensión aprendida, el sistema financiero

11. LA INTERFAZ ENTRE LA BIOSFERA Y LA NOOSFERA: PENSAR LAS ESFERAS DE LA SOSTENIBILIDAD EN LA ERA DEL ANTROPOCENO (Español)

Ignacio Ayestarán. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), España, ignacio_ayestaran@ehu.es

In this work, we present the cultural evolution that has allowed to overcome many problems derived from the limitations of the human body. These limitations have been solved by a “cyborization” process that began since early anthropogenesis. Originally, it was envisioned to deal with some diseases, accidents or body malfunctions. Nowadays, augmentations improve common human capabilities; one of the most notable is the increase of brain efficiency by using connections with a computer. A basic social question also addressed is which people will and should have access to these augmentations. Advanced humanoid robots (with human external aspect, artificial intelligence and even emotions) already exist and consequently a number of questions arise. For instance, will robots be considered living organisms? Could they be considered as persons? Will we confer the human status to robots? These questions are discussed. Our conclusions are that the advanced humanoid robots display some actions that may be considered as life-like, yet different to the life associated with living organisms, also, to some extend they could be considered as persons-like, but not humans.

Palabras clave: cyborg, aumento, robot, inteligencia artificial, posthumanismo, ética.

12. LA CONVIVENCIA CON LOS CYBORGS Y LOS ROBOTS: CONSIDERACIONES FILOSÓFICAS, ÉTICO-MORALES Y SOCIOPOLÍTICAS (Español)

Josep Vives Rego. Departament de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, jvives@ub.edu
Francesc Mestres Naval. Profesor Titular de Genética, Departament de Genética, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, fmestres@ub.edu

In this work, we present the cultural evolution that has allowed to overcome many problems derived from the limitations of the human body. These limitations have been solved by a “cyborization” process that began since early anthropogenesis. Originally, it was envisioned to deal with some diseases, accidents or body malfunctions. Nowadays, augmentations improve common human capabilities; one of the most notable is the increase of brain efficiency by using connections with a computer. A basic social question also addressed is which people will and should have access to these augmentations. Advanced humanoid robots (with human external aspect, artificial intelligence and even emotions) already exist and consequently a number of questions arise. For instance, will robots be considered living organisms? Could they be considered as persons? Will we confer the human status to robots? These questions are discussed. Our conclusions are that the advanced humanoid robots display some actions that may be considered as life-like, yet different to the life associated with living organisms, also, to some extend they could be considered as persons-like, but not humans.

Palabras clave: cyborg, aumento, robot, inteligencia artificial, posthumanismo, ética.

13. AUTOPARÁFRASIS: LA EXPLICACIÓN DE LO HUMANO (Español)

Fernando Maureira Cid. Facultad de Humanidades y Educación, Universidad Internacional SEK. Escuela de Psicología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, maureirafernando@yahoo.es

Language is the basic function, the angular stone on which everything human is founded; on which we construct our reality and our own life experience. A human being is an “auto-periphrastic” biological system, that is to say, it explains himself every moment as being what is. Such story depends on the emotion that we live moment to moment, since it is on this where we generate our own history as a narrative. The concept of autoparaphrase is sufficient to describe what a human being is: an organism capable of constructing a linguistic individual identity. It is a notion from the biological world, based on the laws that regulate and limit the functioning of living systems.

Palabras clave: lenguaje, emoción, explicación, historia, sistema nervioso

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¿MORFOLOGÍA EN MONOS? DISCUSIÓN CRÍTICA DE UN SUPUESTO PROCESO DE AFIJACIÓN EN MONOS EN ESTADO SALVAJE (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Víctor M. Longa. Área de Lingüística General, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España, victormanuel.longa@usc.es
Juan J. Lopez Rivera. Área de Lingüística General, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España, juanjose.lopez.rivera@usc.es

This paper advances three stances. First, that fear is the key to the display of aggressiveness, whether defensive or offensive. Second, that violence is the behavior resulting from the aggressiveness put under the intentional control of consciousness and that the violence always occurs in a context of asymmetry of power. Third, that, when fear becomes chronic, violence tends to induce a syndrome of learned helplessness in victims, a very common syndrome in both gender-based violence as in the genocide in communities or in the psychological and economic violence perpetrated by the financial system today.

Palabras clave: miedo, agresividad, violencia, asimetría de poder, síndrome de indefensión aprendida, el sistema financiero

¿TODO ES REDUCIBLE A LA CIENCIA? CIENCIA Y PAZ / CEREBRO Y CULTURA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Roberto E. Mercadillo Caballero. Laboratorio C-12, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus UNAM, emmanuele.mercadillo@gmail.com

To think about if everything can be scientifically reducible involves a viewpoint on reality that simultaneously encompasses the notion of what “everything” means and the role of “reducibility,; of one phenomenon for explanatory purposes. Both aspects are diffuse and discussed within the neuroscientific current research. The discussion concerns the experimental design that has been applied in neurosciences over the past three decades, as well as the scientific interpretations of the cognitive processes under a materialistic perspective. This controversy ispatent in some current proposals aimed at the development of the so-called “Culture of Peace”, because it involves the acceptance of a violent reality encoded in biological and neurocognitive human systems, along with cultural variables that make up the history and transmission of such codes. In addition to the nature-culture discussions involving violence in the scientific field, the cultivation of peace is proposed as a structural change for the human society based on difficult operational accessible concepts within the experimental neuroscience, for example: solidarity or compassion. Although such proposals have been developed in the scientific field, their effect is projected in a political and cultural reality. From a neurocognitive perspective, this essay proposes the cultivation of peace as a model for thinking about how science reduces a phenomenon (peace) to influence a whole reality (the political and cultural structure), trough conceptual and methodological interactions provided by different scientific disciplines apparently distant.

Palabras clave: cerebro, cognición, compasión, complejidad, cultura, realidad, paz, ciencia, violencia, guerra

AUTOPARÁFRASIS: LA EXPLICACIÓN DE LO HUMANO (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Fernando Maureira Cid. Facultad de Humanidades y Educación, Universidad Internacional SEK. Escuela de Psicología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, maureirafernando@yahoo.es

Language is the basic function, the angular stone on which everything human is founded; on which we construct our reality and our own life experience. A human being is an “auto-periphrastic” biological system, that is to say, it explains himself every moment as being what is. Such story depends on the emotion that we live moment to moment, since it is on this where we generate our own history as a narrative. The concept of autoparaphrase is sufficient to describe what a human being is: an organism capable of constructing a linguistic individual identity. It is a notion from the biological world, based on the laws that regulate and limit the functioning of living systems.

Palabras clave: lenguaje, emoción, explicación, historia, sistema nervioso

BIOLOGÍA, CUERPO Y AUTOCONCIENCIA: REFLEXIONES DESDE LA FENOMENOLOGÍA Y LA NEUROPSICOLOGÍA DE LA ACCIÓN (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Andrés Segovia Cuellar. Grupo de Estudios Sobre Desarrollo Socio/moral, Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, asegovia.cc@gmail.com

The purpose of this paper is to understand cognition from the standpoint of biological autonomy, and how this phenomena is affirmed constantly through the interactions the organisms, endogenously and due to their own organization, establish with a meaningful world. The methodic study concerning the sense of self allow us to conclude that is in the active immersion of biological systems through their agency, within a significant environment, where several interactive situations emerge and affirm their identities by way of self-specifying processes. We propose to conceptually revisit the studies of self to acknowledge the active role that organisms play in the constitution of their experience and in the temporal structure of such experience. Moreover, such theory has to be built from a deep reflection on the biological basis of agency, the function of the brain as a mediator of homeostatic
regulation and action, and the acceptance of the first person’s perspective as ineludible to study consciousness. Finally, we reflect on the phenomenological aspects of schizophrenia and how within this pathology prevails the absence of a meaningful direction to the world and of a genuine sense of self through intentionality. Intentionality, indeed, is understood as that feature that gives direction to lived experience.

Palabras clave: biología e intencionalidad, conciencia de sí, neurodinámica, neuropsicología o acción, agencia, fenomenología

CLAVES PARA ENTENDER LA VIOLENCIA EN EL SIGLO. XXI (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

José Sanmartín Esplugues. Catedrático de Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia, Departamento de Filosofía, Universitat de Valencia, España, jsanmartinesplugues@gmail.com

This paper advances three stances. First, that fear is the key to the display of aggressiveness, whether defensive or offensive. Second, that violence is the behavior resulting from the aggressiveness put under the intentional control of consciousness and that the violence always occurs in a context of asymmetry of power. Third, that, when fear becomes chronic, violence tends to induce a syndrome of learned helplessness in victims, a very common syndrome in both gender-based violence as in the genocide in communities or in the psychological and economic violence perpetrated by the financial system today.

Palabras clave: miedo, agresividad, violencia, asimetría de poder, síndrome de indefensión aprendida, el sistema financiero

COMPREHENSIVE DARWINISM (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Jasper Doomen. Leiden University, Steenschwr, jasperdoomen@yahoo.com

Darwinism has become an encompassing theory, leaving the confines of science and accounting for all aspects of life. Such an outlook entails important consequences for the evaluation of life. In particular, organisms are considered mere means for species’ preservation and development, while reason is no special faculty, but rather an outgrowth of functions that are rudimentarily present in animals. Darwinism cannot, for that reason, be said to be ‘true’, but if Darwinism is the correct view, the implications for man are grave, no purpose or meaning of life being discernable. Darwinists are accordingly faced with the question to why they continue their inquiries.

Palabras clave: darwinismo, darwinismo comprensivo, nihilismo, reduccionismo, platonismo, Schopenhauer

LA CONVIVENCIA CON LOS CYBORGS Y LOS ROBOTS: CONSIDERACIONES FILOSÓFICAS, ÉTICO-MORALES Y SOCIOPOLÍTICAS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Josep Vives Rego. Departament de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, jvives@ub.edu
Francesc Mestres Naval. Profesor Titular de Genética, Departament de Genética, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, fmestres@ub.edu

In this work, we present the cultural evolution that has allowed to overcome many problems derived from the limitations of the human body. These limitations have been solved by a “cyborization” process that began since early anthropogenesis. Originally, it was envisioned to deal with some diseases, accidents or body malfunctions. Nowadays, augmentations improve common human capabilities; one of the most notable is the increase of brain efficiency by using connections with a computer. A basic social question also addressed is which people will and should have access to these augmentations. Advanced humanoid robots (with human external aspect, artificial intelligence and even emotions) already exist and consequently a number of questions arise. For instance, will robots be considered living organisms? Could they be considered as persons? Will we confer the human status to robots? These questions are discussed. Our conclusions are that the advanced humanoid robots display some actions that may be considered as life-like, yet different to the life associated with living organisms, also, to some extend they could be considered as persons-like, but not humans.

Palabras clave: cyborg, aumento, robot, inteligencia artificial, posthumanismo, ética.

LA FUERTE IMPRONTA GRADUALISTA DE DARWIN (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Alberto A. Makinistian. Paleoantropología y Evolución, Facultad de Humanidades y Artes, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina, amakinistian@citynet.net.ar

We find it undeniable that gradualism is an essential part of Darwinism. What is more, we think that, devoid of gradualism, authentic Darwinism is undermined. In this article we intend to show that Darwin was absolutely convinced that his theory could not work if it were not closely linked to a gradualist perspective.

Palabras clave: gradualismo, uniformismo, variaciones, selección natural, variedad, especie

LA INTERFAZ ENTRE LA BIOSFERA Y LA NOOSFERA: PENSAR LAS ESFERAS DE LA SOSTENIBILIDAD EN LA ERA DEL ANTROPOCENO (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Ignacio Ayestarán. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), España, ignacio_ayestaran@ehu.es

In this work, we present the cultural evolution that has allowed to overcome many problems derived from the limitations of the human body. These limitations have been solved by a “cyborization” process that began since early anthropogenesis. Originally, it was envisioned to deal with some diseases, accidents or body malfunctions. Nowadays, augmentations improve common human capabilities; one of the most notable is the increase of brain efficiency by using connections with a computer. A basic social question also addressed is which people will and should have access to these augmentations. Advanced humanoid robots (with human external aspect, artificial intelligence and even emotions) already exist and consequently a number of questions arise. For instance, will robots be considered living organisms? Could they be considered as persons? Will we confer the human status to robots? These questions are discussed. Our conclusions are that the advanced humanoid robots display some actions that may be considered as life-like, yet different to the life associated with living organisms, also, to some extend they could be considered as persons-like, but not humans.

Palabras clave: cyborg, aumento, robot, inteligencia artificial, posthumanismo, ética.

LA NOCIÓN DE ESQUEMA EN KUHN Y PIAGET: INTERACCIÓN DE FILOSOFÍA Y PSICOLOGÍA DE LA CIENCIA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Raúl Alberto Milone. Departamento de Filosofía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, Parque Gral. San Martín, 5500, Mendoza, Argentina. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Catamarca 147, 5500, Mendoza, Argentina, rm@logos.uncu.edu.ar

This contribution focuses on the notion of conceptual scheme and its role in the works of Thomas Kuhn and Jean Piaget. Whereas for the first it was a fundamental tool for analyzing the history and structure of Copernican revolution, for the second it constituted a crucial element for understanding and evaluating the development of the intelligence in children. We make a critical revision of both approaches to this notion in order to point out relationships, affinities and mutual influences between these authors.

Palabras clave: esquema, esquema conceptual, Kuhn, Piaget, filosofía de la ciencia, psicología de la ciencia

LE COMMENSALISME: D’UN CONCEPT MORAL A UN CONCEPT SCIENTIFIQUE (Français)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Brice Poreau. Laboratoire S2HEP, Sciences, Société, Historicité, Education, Pratiques, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon, France, bbcharles@hotmail.com

In the book entitled Les commensaux et les parasites dans le regne animal, published in 1875, Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden (1809-1894), a Belgian zoologist, put forward three different biological associations: parasitism, mutualism and commensalism. The last one considers an association with two different species: one partner benefits, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed, in a kind of stable equilibrium. In the first definitions given by Van Beneden in the 1860’s, the language style is not the same as we use in this definition. It is clearly an anthropomorphic point of view. Commensalism was seen then as a moral concept. In this article, we want to show the history of commensalism that transits from a “moral” concept to a scientific and biological one during the twentieth century.

Palabras clave: comensalismo, Pierre Joseph Van Beneden, asociaciones biológicas, concepto moral

MODULARIDAD, EVOLUCIÓN, Y ONTOLOGÍA RELIGIOSA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Juan C. Vélez. Departamento de Humanidades, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Cali, Colombia, karlegion@yahoo.es

Should science study religion? In this paper I propose a way to understand the religious phenomena, based in its ontology, without excluding science, particularly cognitive sciences. Modularity of mind and evolutionary psychology can account for the origin of dualism and the teleology that underlies the minds that hosted religious beliefs. I will argue, from Dennett, Boyer and Dawkins naturalism, that religious phenomena is not a biological adaptation but a by-product of psychological mechanisms designed for another activities, such as the prediction of our and those of others behaviors, and the understanding of other living beings and natural phenomena.

Palabras clave: modularidad, evolución, cognición, adaptación, naturalización, religión

WHY IS MODERN SYNTHESIS STILL IN FORCE? (English)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 38 (2012)

Juan Ernesto Calderón. Departamento de Filosofía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina, jecalderon99@yahoo.com

The Modern Synthesis has been object of harsh criticism. Nowadays, one of them stems from the ‘Intelligent Design Doctrine’. This doctrine questions the possibility of explaining the origin of novel living forms through the process of natural selection that acts on phenotypic characters. However, the Intelligent Design Doctrine does not reject Modern Synthesis in bloc because it accepts its contributions to understand the microevolutionary processes. The aims of this paper are: (i) To explain why the Modern Synthesis is still in force within the scientific community, and (ii) To show how the divide et impera strategy may clarify this situation.

Palabras clave: síntesis moderna, estrategia de divide et impera, macroevolución, microevolución, diseño inteligente, inducción pesimista, realismo, doctrina, teoría, verdad-semejanza