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Número. 44. Vol. XXIII. [IF 1691 EQUALS=”LUDUS VITALIS”] Ludus Vitalis – [/IF 1691]Revista de Filosofía de las Ciencias de la Vida

Revista científica. Colección: Ludus Vitalis. 2015, Ciudad de México (México). Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos Políticos y Sociales Vicente lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universitat de les Illes Balears, La Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia

ISSN: 1133-5165

Ciencias Naturales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Etnología, Psicología, Sociología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: evolucionismo, epistemología, mente-cuerpo, conducta, técnica, naturaleza

Descripción:

Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, la ciencia en México, epistemología, relación mente-cuerpo y técnica y naturaleza.
Artículo en adelanto: Razón de Estar: Cognición Situada y Cerebro Partícipe, por José Luis Díaz Gómez.
REVISTA PRÓXIMAMENTE DISPONIBLE EN DIGITAL. Para solicitar el número impreso pueden dirigirse a centro.lombardotoledano@gmail.com

1. Saltos funcionales en la evolución del lenguaje: de un protolenguaje léxico-simbólico distribuido al habla del humano anatómicamente moderno (Español)

Alicia Escalonilla. Departamento de Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España, aescalonilla@gmail.com

This paper presents the Extended TESE theory, which proposes the evolution
of language through three functional steps: distributed symbolic-lexical protolanguage;
human speech, and recursion. This theory is based on an evolutionary framework that includes biological emergencies (exaptation, epigenesis, symbiogenesis, deep homology) as an everyday process that complements the role of natural selection. It is also based on a conception of the mind consisting of weak modules or distributed functional neural systems. Finally, it sympathizes with a linguistic description similar to what non-transformational generative grammars do.
This paper discusses the first two steps, stressing the symbiotic relationship between protolanguage and symbolic processes, as well as anatomical and neural specific peculiarities of speech. Extended TESE fits into an externalist structuralism.

Palabras clave: Protolenguaje léxico-simbólico distribuido, habla humana, recursión, emergencias biológicas, exaptación, epigénesis, homología profunda, simbiogénesis, multimodularidad débil, estructuralismo externista

2. CLAUDE BERNARD Y EL LUGAR DE LA FISIOLOGÍA EN UN MUNDO FÍSICAMENTE DETERMINADO (Español)

Gustavo Caponi. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil CNPq, gustavoandrescaponi@gmail.com

In the Introduction to study of experimental medicine we can find references to the role of laws in the causal explanations of physiology phenomena that seem to be anticipations of the nomological-deductive model of explanation. Even so, it is also possible to read these paragraphs from a perspective that link them to the theoretical options that Bernard was proposing and developing in his physiological research. He was reinforcing there his contestation to Vitalism inasmuch it was intrinsic to the program of experimental physiology. The existence of these physiological laws ensured that the experimental route was feasible for the new discipline, and its discovery showed the compatibility between the knowledge produced by physiology and the presuppositions of what today we would characterize as physicalist ontology.

Palabras clave: Claude Bernal, explicación causal, inercia, Fisicalismo, Vitalismo, leyes fisiológicas, ciencias experimentales

3. LA DIMENSIÓN COGNITIVA DEL CHAMANISMO AMERINDIO: UN ENFOQUE TRANSDISCIPLINARIO DE LOS ESTADOS DE CONCIENCIA (Español)

Juan Alfonso Méndez Zavala. División de Ciencias Sociales y Administrativas. Universidad de Guanajuato campus Celaya- Salvatierra, Guanajuato, México., psicognicion@gmail

This paper explores the human psyche from the scientific and indigenous approaches. What does shamanism posits on human cognition? What do the cognitive sciences say about shamanic practice? To analyze both epistemic spheres seeks to create a link between both thought-systems without reducing their ontologies, where the visionary experience of shamanic cultures is considered an altered state of consciousness with neuronal activity correlates.

Palabras clave: mente, conciencia, cognición, chamanismo, halucinógenos, espíritu, alma, neurociencia, experiencia, lenguaje, estados alterados de conciencia, drogas rituales, medicina tradicional

4. RAZÓN DE ESTAR: COGNICIÓN SITUADA Y CEREBRO PARTÍCIPE (Español)

José Luis Díaz Gómez. Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México., jldiaz43@gamail.com

The fundamental concepts of situated and embodied cognition are explicit in the grammar and meaning of the Spanish verb estar (being in a temporary state or location as a distinct interpretation of the verb to be). Such meaning has been analyzed by phenomenological philosophers and conveyed by existential poets, particularly by several expatriates of the Spanish Civil War. Similar tenets were independently developed by holistic biology and psychology specialists, and in recent times their neurobiological foundations have been increasingly revealed and indicate that the brain is a crucial participant of the situated mind. Such transdisciplinary convergence constitutes a natural philosophy of estar understood as the nature of the active connection between cognitive creatures and their physical, social, and symbolic environment.

Palabras clave: Estar, estar ahí, cognición situada, fenomenología, Dasein, psicología ambiental, conciencia de tiempo y espacio, tiempo presente, presencia, cerebro situado, Jorge Guillén.

5. LENGUAJE Y ESTRUCTURAS DE LA FUNCIÓN REPRESENTACIONAL: LA CATEGORÍA DE “GRAMÁTICA MÍNIMA” EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SU FILOGÉNESIS (Español)

Eduardo Malagón Mosqueda. Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.
Jorge H. Flores. Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia., erato739@gmail.com

We attempt to contribute to the explanation of the origins and nature of language starting from the linguistic function as an emergent modular capacity produced by the evolution of combined pre-linguistic attributes, already present in human evolution prior to Homo sapiens sapiens. We emphasize the basic capacity to make mental representations of reality and propose the concept of “minimal grammar”, mathematically modeled here by integrating the functional correlates between representations and syntactic transformations. From this formulation it is demonstrated that any conceivable statement can be generated—following this sort of elementary grammar—by means of sequences of binary permutation of representational units.

Palabras clave: Capacidades prelingüísticas, gramática mínima, simbolización, trascendencia fenomenológica, representación mental, emergencia

6. ATRIBUCIÓN INTENCIONAL EN PRIMATES NO HUMANOS: EL GIRO HACIA LA EXPLICACIÓN (Español)

Laura Danón. Facultad de Psicología y Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Universidad Nacional de Córdova, Argentina, ldanon@gmail.com

Nowadays, empirical studies on intentional attribution in non-human primates focus on the capacity of those animals to predict the behaviors of others. In some recent work, Kristin Andrews has argued that we need to change that methodological approach by turning to investigate, conceptually and empirically, whether non-human primates are capable of explaining the behavior of others. In her view, such methodological shift is justified because the capacity to seek and generate explanations of behavior is a more reliable indicator of the ability to attribute propositional attitudes. Here, I will argue that Andrews’ proposal faces difficulties analogous to those which plague the approaches which put their focus on the predictive capacities of primates. I will also suggest some ways in which her approach can be modified in order to be able to provide robust evidence of intentional attribution in non-human primates.

Palabras clave: Filosofía de la mente, cognición animal, cognición social, atribución intencional, psicología de sentido común, primates no humanos, normatividad, predicción.

7. UNA DEUDA PENDIENTE EN LAS CIENCIAS HUMANAS: LA INCLUSIÓN DE LOS APORTES DE LA GENÉTICA Y LA BIOLOGÍA EVOLUCIONISTA (Español)

María Natalia Zavadiker. Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina., zavadivker@yahoo.com.ar

This article aims to push forward the importance to human and social sciences of genetics of behavior and evolutionary biology knowledge. We do this in order to advance towards an interdisciplinary approach to social phenomena that do not ignore or dismiss their biological roots. It begins with an analysis of the reasons for such denial within the dominant discourse in the human sciences. We present next some recent advances in behavior genetics, molecular biology and evolutionary biology that may overcome the traditional dichotomy heredity-environment. We posit instead their necessary complementarity and interaction. Various forms of such correlation are exposed and we apply theoretical tools to analyze the fundamental causes to individual, social, cultural and ethnic differences, emphasizing the multiplier or inhibitory effect that the environment can have on the genetic potential.
that the environment can have on the genetic potential.

Palabras clave: Medio ambiente, biología evolucionaria, ciencias humanas, comportamiento humano, correlación, cultura-naturaleza, genética de comportamiento, interacción genotipo-medio ambiente, retroalimentación.

8. HIPOCRESÍA, PONERSE EN ESCENA Y REPUTACIÓN: EL PARECER MORAL COMO MOTIVACIÓN (Español)

Andrés E. Murcia Navarro. Grupo de Salud, Conocimiento Médico y Sociedad, Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Ciencia y Procesos Humanos, Centro de Investigación sobre Dinámica Social (CIDS), Universidad Externado de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia., andresmuna@gmail.com

This article aims to critically review the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive and hermeneutic elements of moral hypocrisy, and its manifestation as moral staging. We begin with the social usage of the hypocrisy concept to explore its value as a moral strategy. Well explore the historical and conceptual symbiosis between morality and hypocrisy to show each other’s tolerance. We will delve into empirical studies on moral hypocrisy, with its motives and inconsistencies, in order to discuss the social usefulness of moral staging. We will finish with an attempt to approach the moral staging like a possible moral heuristic, a cognitive schema and a tool of the justification system.

Palabras clave: Hipocresía moral, integridad moral, marcos normativos, marco personal, escena moral

9. FILOSOFÍA ANIMAL (Español)

Markus Wild. Philosophisches Seminar, Departement Philosophie und Medienwissenschaft, Universität Basel, Basel, Switzerland., markus.wild@unibas.ch

The philosophy of animal minds addresses questions concerning the mental life of animals, the difference between animals; and humans, and our moral relation to animals. In the first part, the question of animal thought is answered positively by a naturalistic conception of belief ascription in the case of animals, and some objections are answered. Teleosemantics is introduced as a promising account of animal thought. In the second part, the philosophy of animal minds will be expanded to a special kind of animal, namely human beings. An argument based on animalism for the explanatory continuity between humans and other animals in their mental faculties is introduced.

Palabras clave: Filosofía animal, mente animal, naturalismo, teleosemántica, animalismo, diferencia antropológica

10. EL PENSAMIENTO NO TAN HUMANO DE LOS ANIMALES Y SU VINCULACIÓN CON EL LENGUAJE (Español)

William B. Otañez Durán. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, España., sanespest@juno.com

Many of the members of the scientific community have been intrigued by the debate pertaining to animals’ cognitive process in comparison and contrast to men. Ancient thinkers, such as Aristotle, could only argue positions from a philosophical aspect. The modern inclination, especially of ethologists, advocates animal thinking to be motivated by the vision of the father of biological evolution, Darwin. With the last intention of wanting to link humans with the evolution of lower animals, postulants in favor of animal thinking do not curtail studies and economic resources to support their heuristic propositions. A careful study of the essential components that make possible the genesis of thought and language and a consideration of the different schools that have postulated their theories in this vast field will give the necessary guidelines to
determine the cognitive state of animals and its possibilities of using the articulated language congruent to humans.

Palabras clave: Lenguaje, pensamiento, Darwin, conginción, ambiente, cultura, evolución, razonamiento, mente, cerebro

11. EL DERECHO A LA SALUD: ENTRE LA PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL Y LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS (Español)

María Luisa Bertomeu. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. CONICET, mjbertomeu@gmail.com
Liliana Spinella. Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET., proyectoinvestigacion@yahoo.com.ar

International law is not a homogeneous corpus of rules, inasmuch different regulatory systems often involve incompatibilities. This is the case with the internationalization of trade rules that constantly places constraints to the enforcement of the right to health and to one of its core elements, the access to medicines. In this paper we try to show: i) the strategies proposed by North- South FTAs, especially between US and Latin American countries, in order to strengthen intellectual property (patent law); ii) the implications of these stratagems for the access to medicines, and iii) the way in which these strategies interfere with state sovereignty in determining what is the public good.

Palabras clave: Derecho a la salud, propiedad intelectual, derechos humanos, acuerdos de libre comercio, acceso a medicinas, patentes farmaceúticas, bien público, soberanía

12. HISTORIA DEL ARTE Y ANATOMÍA PATOLÓGICA: LA AUTOPSIA EN EL ARTE MODERNO (Español)

Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz. Departamento de Atención a la Salud, Posgrados en Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, México., bioetica_reproductiva@hotmail.com

This work addresses the complex issue of art in its connection to the issue of cadaver aesthetics. As it would be incommensurable to write about art in general in a single specialized paper, it will narrow its focus on the differences in modern and contemporary art, where some relationships between art and medicine may be are established. Within this framework, some representative autopsy pictorial representations are commented.

Palabras clave: Arte contemporáneo, arte moderno, medicina, patología, autopsia, cadaver, representación pictórica, imagen científica, arte en la medicina, medicina en el arte

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ATRIBUCIÓN INTENCIONAL EN PRIMATES NO HUMANOS: EL GIRO HACIA LA EXPLICACIÓN (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Laura Danón. Facultad de Psicología y Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Universidad Nacional de Córdova, Argentina, ldanon@gmail.com

Nowadays, empirical studies on intentional attribution in non-human primates focus on the capacity of those animals to predict the behaviors of others. In some recent work, Kristin Andrews has argued that we need to change that methodological approach by turning to investigate, conceptually and empirically, whether non-human primates are capable of explaining the behavior of others. In her view, such methodological shift is justified because the capacity to seek and generate explanations of behavior is a more reliable indicator of the ability to attribute propositional attitudes. Here, I will argue that Andrews’ proposal faces difficulties analogous to those which plague the approaches which put their focus on the predictive capacities of primates. I will also suggest some ways in which her approach can be modified in order to be able to provide robust evidence of intentional attribution in non-human primates.

Palabras clave: Filosofía de la mente, cognición animal, cognición social, atribución intencional, psicología de sentido común, primates no humanos, normatividad, predicción.

CLAUDE BERNARD Y EL LUGAR DE LA FISIOLOGÍA EN UN MUNDO FÍSICAMENTE DETERMINADO (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Gustavo Caponi. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil CNPq, gustavoandrescaponi@gmail.com

In the Introduction to study of experimental medicine we can find references to the role of laws in the causal explanations of physiology phenomena that seem to be anticipations of the nomological-deductive model of explanation. Even so, it is also possible to read these paragraphs from a perspective that link them to the theoretical options that Bernard was proposing and developing in his physiological research. He was reinforcing there his contestation to Vitalism inasmuch it was intrinsic to the program of experimental physiology. The existence of these physiological laws ensured that the experimental route was feasible for the new discipline, and its discovery showed the compatibility between the knowledge produced by physiology and the presuppositions of what today we would characterize as physicalist ontology.

Palabras clave: Claude Bernal, explicación causal, inercia, Fisicalismo, Vitalismo, leyes fisiológicas, ciencias experimentales

EL DERECHO A LA SALUD: ENTRE LA PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL Y LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

María Luisa Bertomeu. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. CONICET, mjbertomeu@gmail.com
Liliana Spinella. Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET., proyectoinvestigacion@yahoo.com.ar

International law is not a homogeneous corpus of rules, inasmuch different regulatory systems often involve incompatibilities. This is the case with the internationalization of trade rules that constantly places constraints to the enforcement of the right to health and to one of its core elements, the access to medicines. In this paper we try to show: i) the strategies proposed by North- South FTAs, especially between US and Latin American countries, in order to strengthen intellectual property (patent law); ii) the implications of these stratagems for the access to medicines, and iii) the way in which these strategies interfere with state sovereignty in determining what is the public good.

Palabras clave: Derecho a la salud, propiedad intelectual, derechos humanos, acuerdos de libre comercio, acceso a medicinas, patentes farmaceúticas, bien público, soberanía

EL PENSAMIENTO NO TAN HUMANO DE LOS ANIMALES Y SU VINCULACIÓN CON EL LENGUAJE (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

William B. Otañez Durán. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, España., sanespest@juno.com

Many of the members of the scientific community have been intrigued by the debate pertaining to animals’ cognitive process in comparison and contrast to men. Ancient thinkers, such as Aristotle, could only argue positions from a philosophical aspect. The modern inclination, especially of ethologists, advocates animal thinking to be motivated by the vision of the father of biological evolution, Darwin. With the last intention of wanting to link humans with the evolution of lower animals, postulants in favor of animal thinking do not curtail studies and economic resources to support their heuristic propositions. A careful study of the essential components that make possible the genesis of thought and language and a consideration of the different schools that have postulated their theories in this vast field will give the necessary guidelines to
determine the cognitive state of animals and its possibilities of using the articulated language congruent to humans.

Palabras clave: Lenguaje, pensamiento, Darwin, conginción, ambiente, cultura, evolución, razonamiento, mente, cerebro

FILOSOFÍA ANIMAL (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Markus Wild. Philosophisches Seminar, Departement Philosophie und Medienwissenschaft, Universität Basel, Basel, Switzerland., markus.wild@unibas.ch

The philosophy of animal minds addresses questions concerning the mental life of animals, the difference between animals; and humans, and our moral relation to animals. In the first part, the question of animal thought is answered positively by a naturalistic conception of belief ascription in the case of animals, and some objections are answered. Teleosemantics is introduced as a promising account of animal thought. In the second part, the philosophy of animal minds will be expanded to a special kind of animal, namely human beings. An argument based on animalism for the explanatory continuity between humans and other animals in their mental faculties is introduced.

Palabras clave: Filosofía animal, mente animal, naturalismo, teleosemántica, animalismo, diferencia antropológica

HIPOCRESÍA, PONERSE EN ESCENA Y REPUTACIÓN: EL PARECER MORAL COMO MOTIVACIÓN (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Andrés E. Murcia Navarro. Grupo de Salud, Conocimiento Médico y Sociedad, Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Ciencia y Procesos Humanos, Centro de Investigación sobre Dinámica Social (CIDS), Universidad Externado de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia., andresmuna@gmail.com

This article aims to critically review the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive and hermeneutic elements of moral hypocrisy, and its manifestation as moral staging. We begin with the social usage of the hypocrisy concept to explore its value as a moral strategy. Well explore the historical and conceptual symbiosis between morality and hypocrisy to show each other’s tolerance. We will delve into empirical studies on moral hypocrisy, with its motives and inconsistencies, in order to discuss the social usefulness of moral staging. We will finish with an attempt to approach the moral staging like a possible moral heuristic, a cognitive schema and a tool of the justification system.

Palabras clave: Hipocresía moral, integridad moral, marcos normativos, marco personal, escena moral

HISTORIA DEL ARTE Y ANATOMÍA PATOLÓGICA: LA AUTOPSIA EN EL ARTE MODERNO (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz. Departamento de Atención a la Salud, Posgrados en Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, México., bioetica_reproductiva@hotmail.com

This work addresses the complex issue of art in its connection to the issue of cadaver aesthetics. As it would be incommensurable to write about art in general in a single specialized paper, it will narrow its focus on the differences in modern and contemporary art, where some relationships between art and medicine may be are established. Within this framework, some representative autopsy pictorial representations are commented.

Palabras clave: Arte contemporáneo, arte moderno, medicina, patología, autopsia, cadaver, representación pictórica, imagen científica, arte en la medicina, medicina en el arte

LA DIMENSIÓN COGNITIVA DEL CHAMANISMO AMERINDIO: UN ENFOQUE TRANSDISCIPLINARIO DE LOS ESTADOS DE CONCIENCIA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Juan Alfonso Méndez Zavala. División de Ciencias Sociales y Administrativas. Universidad de Guanajuato campus Celaya- Salvatierra, Guanajuato, México., psicognicion@gmail

This paper explores the human psyche from the scientific and indigenous approaches. What does shamanism posits on human cognition? What do the cognitive sciences say about shamanic practice? To analyze both epistemic spheres seeks to create a link between both thought-systems without reducing their ontologies, where the visionary experience of shamanic cultures is considered an altered state of consciousness with neuronal activity correlates.

Palabras clave: mente, conciencia, cognición, chamanismo, halucinógenos, espíritu, alma, neurociencia, experiencia, lenguaje, estados alterados de conciencia, drogas rituales, medicina tradicional

LENGUAJE Y ESTRUCTURAS DE LA FUNCIÓN REPRESENTACIONAL: LA CATEGORÍA DE “GRAMÁTICA MÍNIMA” EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SU FILOGÉNESIS (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Eduardo Malagón Mosqueda. Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.
Jorge H. Flores. Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia., erato739@gmail.com

We attempt to contribute to the explanation of the origins and nature of language starting from the linguistic function as an emergent modular capacity produced by the evolution of combined pre-linguistic attributes, already present in human evolution prior to Homo sapiens sapiens. We emphasize the basic capacity to make mental representations of reality and propose the concept of “minimal grammar”, mathematically modeled here by integrating the functional correlates between representations and syntactic transformations. From this formulation it is demonstrated that any conceivable statement can be generated—following this sort of elementary grammar—by means of sequences of binary permutation of representational units.

Palabras clave: Capacidades prelingüísticas, gramática mínima, simbolización, trascendencia fenomenológica, representación mental, emergencia

RAZÓN DE ESTAR: COGNICIÓN SITUADA Y CEREBRO PARTÍCIPE (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

José Luis Díaz Gómez. Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México., jldiaz43@gamail.com

The fundamental concepts of situated and embodied cognition are explicit in the grammar and meaning of the Spanish verb estar (being in a temporary state or location as a distinct interpretation of the verb to be). Such meaning has been analyzed by phenomenological philosophers and conveyed by existential poets, particularly by several expatriates of the Spanish Civil War. Similar tenets were independently developed by holistic biology and psychology specialists, and in recent times their neurobiological foundations have been increasingly revealed and indicate that the brain is a crucial participant of the situated mind. Such transdisciplinary convergence constitutes a natural philosophy of estar understood as the nature of the active connection between cognitive creatures and their physical, social, and symbolic environment.

Palabras clave: Estar, estar ahí, cognición situada, fenomenología, Dasein, psicología ambiental, conciencia de tiempo y espacio, tiempo presente, presencia, cerebro situado, Jorge Guillén.

Saltos funcionales en la evolución del lenguaje: de un protolenguaje léxico-simbólico distribuido al habla del humano anatómicamente moderno (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

Alicia Escalonilla. Departamento de Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España, aescalonilla@gmail.com

This paper presents the Extended TESE theory, which proposes the evolution
of language through three functional steps: distributed symbolic-lexical protolanguage;
human speech, and recursion. This theory is based on an evolutionary framework that includes biological emergencies (exaptation, epigenesis, symbiogenesis, deep homology) as an everyday process that complements the role of natural selection. It is also based on a conception of the mind consisting of weak modules or distributed functional neural systems. Finally, it sympathizes with a linguistic description similar to what non-transformational generative grammars do.
This paper discusses the first two steps, stressing the symbiotic relationship between protolanguage and symbolic processes, as well as anatomical and neural specific peculiarities of speech. Extended TESE fits into an externalist structuralism.

Palabras clave: Protolenguaje léxico-simbólico distribuido, habla humana, recursión, emergencias biológicas, exaptación, epigénesis, homología profunda, simbiogénesis, multimodularidad débil, estructuralismo externista

UNA DEUDA PENDIENTE EN LAS CIENCIAS HUMANAS: LA INCLUSIÓN DE LOS APORTES DE LA GENÉTICA Y LA BIOLOGÍA EVOLUCIONISTA (Español)

Ludus Vitalis. Núm. 44 (2015)

María Natalia Zavadiker. Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina., zavadivker@yahoo.com.ar

This article aims to push forward the importance to human and social sciences of genetics of behavior and evolutionary biology knowledge. We do this in order to advance towards an interdisciplinary approach to social phenomena that do not ignore or dismiss their biological roots. It begins with an analysis of the reasons for such denial within the dominant discourse in the human sciences. We present next some recent advances in behavior genetics, molecular biology and evolutionary biology that may overcome the traditional dichotomy heredity-environment. We posit instead their necessary complementarity and interaction. Various forms of such correlation are exposed and we apply theoretical tools to analyze the fundamental causes to individual, social, cultural and ethnic differences, emphasizing the multiplier or inhibitory effect that the environment can have on the genetic potential.
that the environment can have on the genetic potential.

Palabras clave: Medio ambiente, biología evolucionaria, ciencias humanas, comportamiento humano, correlación, cultura-naturaleza, genética de comportamiento, interacción genotipo-medio ambiente, retroalimentación.