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Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, epistemología, ciencias cognitivas, lo humano y la relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento.

Ludus Vitalis

Revista científica. Nº 48. Vol. 25. 2017. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Revista semestral editada por el Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y Edicions UIB de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Antropología, Filosofía, Ciencias Cognitivas.


Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, epistemología, ciencias cognitivas, lo humano y la relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento.

1. El correlato ecológico del semaforonte (Español)

Gustavo Caponi. CNPq // Departamento de Filosofía, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil,

The biological world involves two hierarchies: the systemic and the genealogical, which have their intersection point at the individual living being. The semaphoront of the genealogical hierarchy would have its correlate, or equivalent, in the organism of the systemic hierarchy, and that would be the place where both orders mesh. However, the idea that the organism is always the systemic correlate of the exemplar, or the semaphoront of systematics, is an oversimplification. The current discussion concerning biological individuality shows that what is commonly understood as “organism” is just a form, or level, of individuation that is far from occurring in all biological lineages. In such sense, the idea of a Darwinian individual in the first grade, which I shall to explain here, defines the point of intersection between both hierarchies with greater precision and generality than the mere notion of organism. Such intersection point is located at the ecological level, where the struggle for life occurs.

Palabras clave: Biological individual, Darwinian individual, organism, semaphoront, exemplar, systematics, biological hierarquies

2. Aspectos epistemológicos sobre la clasificación biológica y la praxis de la sistemática filogenética (Español)

Carlos A. Zavaro Pérez. Sistemática de Plantas Vasculares, Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. / Cátedra de Evolución, Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina,

Epistemological aspects in biological classification and philogenetic systematics practice

Biological classification is addressed from an epistemic-methodological perspective that analyzes the disciplinary practice of taxonomy, on how species are delimited and their phylogenetic relationships are stablished. It is argued that the definition of a taxonomic species neither implies the hypothetic deductive method nor the inductive approach. The argumentative model of Toulmin (2003) is suggested as a theoretical tool to establish attributes and limits to these taxonomic definitions. Thus, the use of the hypothesis is relevant in phylogenetic analysis only concerning monophyly or evolutionary history of taxa.

Palabras clave: Argumentation, cladism, classifications, species, feneticism, phylogeny, hypothesis, induction, monophyly, taxonomy

3. Análisis de los supuestos epistemológicos y ontológicos presentes en tres investigaciones ecológicas realizadas en la laguna costera de mar chiquita sobre el poliqueto invasor Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Español)

Carolina I. García Curilaf. Filosofía de las Ciencias, Departamento de Filosofía, Facultad de Humanidades, UNMdP, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina,
Guillermo M. Denegri. CONICET, Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales-UNMdP, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina,

Analysis of the epistemological and ontological assumptions present in three ecological investigations at the mar chiquita coastal lagoon regarding the invasive polychaete f. enigmaticus.

In order to show the epistemological (empiricist, rationalist, racioempiricist) and ontological (individualistic, holistic, sistemist) assumptions present in ecological research, which often remain implicit, this paper analyzes three investigations in ecology made in the coastal lagoon of Mar Chiquita (37° 40’S, 57° 23’W, Argentina (Obenat 2001; Schwindt 2001; Bruschetti, et al., 2008), from an epistemological and ontological viewpoint. Those articles assess the ecological consecuences of an invasive species, the reef forming polychaete F. enigmaticus. The disadvantages of implementing purely rationalist or empiricist epistemologies in ecological research, and the advantages of using a racioempiricists one are shown here.

Palabras clave: Epistemology, ecology, Mario Bunge, patterns, processes, empiricism, rationalism, racioempiricism, individualism, holism, systemism

4. La analogía de los contagios. Interpretación causal en la medicina renacentista de Fracastoro (Español)

Ruy J. Henríquez Garrido. Facultad de Filosofía. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España,

The analogy of the contagion. Causal interpretation in Fracastoro’s Renaissance medicine.

According to Girolamo Fracastoro in his book De contagione, et eorum et contagiosis morbis curatione (1546), contagious diseases are caused by the analogies between the seminaria contagionum (seedlets of contagion) and organisms affected by them. Such analogies are governed by the laws of sympathy and antipathy that regulate the universal order of things, according to the Neo-Platonic philosophy of the Renaissance, whose influence was decisive in the discourse of the physician of the Verona. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sources and possible reasons that led Fracastoro to support an idea that, due to its apparent qualitative nature, would contradict its rejection to the hidden qualities in explaining the etiology of contagion.

Palabras clave: Fracastoro, seeds of contagion, analogy, sympathy, antipathy, occult qualities, elective affinities, spiritual species, Neo-Platonism

5. Lo complejo en las problemáticas ambientales: Propuestas epistemológicas y conservación de la biodiversidad (Español)

Gabriela Klier. CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina – Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Grupo de Filosofía de la Biología y Laboratorio de Ecología y Comportamiento Animal,
Tomás Busan. Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina – Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Grupo de Filosofía de la Biología,
Federico Di Pasquo. CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina – Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Grupo de Filosofía de la Biología,

Complexity in environmental issues: Epistemological proposals and biodiversity conservation.

Environmental issues have fractured our ways of thinking, knowing and acting. From these fissures, the notion of complexity has emerged. Complexity appears in the epistemological proposals of Rolando Garcia, Enrique Leff and Edgar Morin as a matrix for addressing environmental issues, as well as in natural sciences in general. Particularly, conservation biology has integrated this “complex” view into its goal to preserve biodiversity. Now, what distances and proximities appear between these “complexities”? The purpose of this paper is to characterize the complexity perspectives in Leff, Garcia and Morin, and to contrast such approaches with the theoretical and epistemological assumptions of conservation biology, examining their relationships and trying to establish a common horizon between those epistemological proposals and the environmental sciences.

Palabras clave: Complexity; conservation biology; environmental epistemology; philosophy of biology; environmentalism; Edgar Morin; Rolando García; Enrique Leff; ecology; holism

6. Fundamentos conceptuales de la biología de la cultura (Español)

Angelo Fasce. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Valencia, España,

Conceptual foundations of culture as a biological phenomenon

In this study, I will develop the theoretical foundations for a conceptual unification of all the fields involved in the understanding of culture as a biological phenomenon. First, I will offer a general model for all types of cultural exchange, located at a purely behavioral level. After that, I will define “human culture” using this model, taking into account the specific neurological features of Homo sapiens. This definition is based on the conceptual framework of internist memetics and on some current developments in neuroscience, among which the so-called “concept neurons” stand out.

Palabras clave: Culture, memetics, cultural evolution, hippocampus, concept neurons

7. Los derechos humanos y la dialéctica entre autonomía y vulnerabilidad. Un análisis de la película Crash (Español)

Natacha Salomé Lima. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina,
Elizabeth Ormart. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina,

Human rights and the dialectics between autonomy and vulnerability. An analysys on the film Crash.

We address here the issue of human rights as a symbolic framework that holds society together and in certain situations could be violated. From our perspective, human rights are not only a normative background, but an expression in which moral conventions and principles of an ethics of care come together to protect the symbolic meaning of our species. The aggravation of exclusive migratory politics and the difficulties of living together in multicultural settings are elements that, from the current reality and also from the movies, as in the film Crash, confront us with the dialectics between vulnerability and autonomy, as well as between universalism and relativism. These tensions demand a third more comprehensive element, which we find in the idea of human rights.

Palabras clave: Race, racism, discrimination, ethics, otherness, human rights, vulnerability, autonomy, universalism, relativism.

8. Estudio transdisciplinario sobre la autoconciencia (Español)

Ángel Rivera Arrizabalaga. Jefe del Servicio de Anestesiología y Reanimación del Hospital Universitario del Tajo en Aranjuez (Madrid). Doctor en Prehistoria,
Sara Rivera Velasco. Psicóloga cognitivo-conductual independiente,

Self-awareness: transdisciplinary study

If anything strongly characterizes the human being it is his self-awareness. In order to study its origins and development in the Homo gender, all the sciences that may be related to its emergence have been used, and we can group them into three analytical groups. First, human neuroevolution (evolutionary biology, genetics, embryology, and paleoanthropology). Second, human psychobiology (neurology, psychology and psycholinguistics). Third, environmental interaction (social and cultural anthropology, archeology and demography). Its methodological combination have provide us a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary analysis about self-awareness acquisition in the human species, showing us that its fundamentals can focus on three important processes: exaptation, coevolution and cognitive emergence.

Palabras clave: Self-awareness, transdisciplinarity, exaptation, coevolution and cognitive emergence.

9. ¿Pueden pensar los animales no humanos? Algunas consideraciones en defensa del antropomorfismo científico (Español)

Oscar David Caicedo M. Programa de Filosofía de la Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla, Colombia. Grupo de Investigación Holosapiens,

Can non-human animals think? A defense of scientific anthropomorphism.

The debates on the attribution of mental states to non-human animals has been discussed for a long time. This article presents a critique of Davidson’s “language-centrism” (which holds that organisms without language are unable to produce thoughts), to argue in the defense of a scientific anthropomorphism. The use of this concept is the only way to preserve the evolutionary parsimony that can make viable to study the behavior of animals, if the Darwinian continuity between people and other animals must be kept in the horizon of the behavioral sciences.

Palabras clave: Animal cognition, cognitive ethology, anthropomorphism, anecdanguaotalism, Morgan’s Canon

10. Estados de incertidumbre y celos. Hacia una propuesta terapéutica (Español)

José de Jesús Padua. Posgrado en Filosofía de la Ciencia, Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,

Uncertainty states and jealousy. Towards a therapeutical proposal

The concept of Uncertainty State (IS) is proposed, taking jealousy as an example. An IS constitute a set of simultaneously organized processes that make the subjects suffer by imagining decontextualized scenarios, which threaten their own notion of identity provoking a constant anguish, and are apparently immune to rational argumentation. There is a complex game of amnesia and memory in which they daily forget and then remember the same questions and scenarios they obsessively and compulsively imagine, making their world uncertain. It is explained how contextualizing these IS can be a therapeutical intervention.

Palabras clave: Jealousy, Uncertainty State, identity, obsession, therapeutical intervention, psychotherapy

11. El poder de decisión o el último grito del Ápeiron (Español)

Arturo Venebra-Muñoz. Centro de Investigación en Recursos Bióticos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Toluca, Estado de México,

The power of decision or the latest from Ápeiron

The present work analyzes the issue of freedom or free will rethinking the classic concepts from atomistic Materialism and Medieval philosophy, and contrasting them with recent emergent phenomena studies in the neurosciences. The forms and explanations about freedom from Aristotelian and Galilean traditions are compared from a phenomenological viewpoint. It is proposed that the transformations and the emerging nervous properties, viewed as the modern concept of plasticity, may be determinant for the possibility of freedom.

Palabras clave: Decision making, free will, clinamen, Atomism, cerebral plasticity, phenomenology, cognitive science, emergent properties

12. Carruthers y la transparencia de la mente (Español)

Martin Fricke. Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas y Centro Peninsular en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,

Carruthers and the transparency of mind.

Self-knowledge presents a challenge for naturalistic theories of mind. Peter Carruthers’s (2011) approach to this challenge is Rylean: He argues that we know our own propositional attitudes because we (unconsciously) interpret ourselves, just as we have to interpret others in order to know theirs’. An alternative approach, opposed by Carruthers, is to argue that we do have a special access to our own beliefs, but that this is a natural consequence of our reasoning capacity. This is the approach of transparency theories of self-knowledge, neatly encapsulated in Byrne’s epistemic rule (BEL): If p, believe that you believe that p (Byrne 2005). In this paper, I examine an objection to Carruthers’s theory in order to see whether it opens up space for a transparency theory of self-knowledge: Is it not the case that in order to interpret someone I have to have some direct access to what I believe (cf. Friedman and Petrashek 2009)?

Palabras clave: Self-knowledge, privileged access, other minds, Peter Carruthers, Alex Byrne

13. Debates recientes sobre conceptos en filosofía y ciencias cognitivas (Español)

Andrés Crelier. Grupo de Estudios en Pensamiento Conceptual, Cátedra de Filosofía Contemporánea, Facultad de Humanidades, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina,

El libro Conceptos, lenguaje y cognición incluye un conjunto de artículos recientes en el marco de la filosofía de las ciencias cognitivas. Más específicamente, los tópicos se abordan desde algunos supuestos de la tradición filosófica analítica y desde teorías referidas a las ciencias cognitivas, lo cual da lugar a un enfrentamiento entre ambas perspectivas que recorre las discusiones. En cuanto a los temas, se trata de la relación de dependencia (o no) entre el pensamiento conceptual y el lenguaje, la posibilidad de cognición no conceptual, y el modo de entender el pensamiento animal no humano, entre otros.


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