Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, epistemología, relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento, conducta, lo humano, técnica y naturaleza y el juego de los conceptos.

Ludus Vitalis

Revista científica. Ludus Vitalis. Nº 42. Vol. XXII. 2014. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos Políticos y Sociales Vicente lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universitat de les Illes Balears, La Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias del Espacio, Ciencias de la Vida, Historia, Psicología, Filosofía, Lenguaje y Lingüística.
Palabras clave: Naturaleza, originalidad, política y ciencia, Werner Callebaut, universo, Isaak Prezent, inferencia, psicología evolucionista,


Este número está dedicado a evolucionismo, epistemología, relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento, conducta, lo humano, técnica y naturaleza y el juego de los conceptos.

1. The role of Isaak Prezent in the rise and fall of Lysenkoism (English)

Giulia Rispoli. Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sapienza, Università di Roma, Italy

ABSTRACT. The establishment of an “official” biology in the Soviet Union is often associated with the rise of Trofim D. Lysenko and with the unbridled power that he exercised with the active complicity of Stalin. However, Lysenko did not apply his tyrannical methods with the same effectiveness and to the same ends throughout his career. The institutionalization of the new agronomy involved a complex combination of factors, and the power and charisma of those who surrounded Lysenko greatly facilitated his indoctrination of this branch of science. One of the most influential collaborators of Lysenko was the Marxist ideologist and Party official Isaak Izrailevich Prezent, whose relationship with Lysenko is crucial to understand Lysenko’s development from a simple plant breeder to a political force of the Soviet Union.

Palabras clave: Trofim D. Lysenko, Isaak I. Prezent, official biology, genetics, Academy Session, Alexander A. Malinovskij, science and politics, Soviet science, Stalinism, agricultural sciences

2. Un módulo lingüístico emergido por “simbiogénesis” y adaptado para una gramática generativa no transformacional (Español)

Alicia Escalonilla González. Departamento de Lógica y Filosofía de la Ciencia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España

In this paper I will defend TELEs, the theory of language evolution by three emergences and natural selection. The aim is to support the first step, wherein language is the resulting module of an associative emergence from two previous modules that are responsible for conceptual and syntactic aspects, respectively. My strategy will consist of showing the consistency between the latest research in various disciplines (philosophy: multimodularity; biology: symbiogenesis, emergence, exaptation, and linguistics: nontransformational generative grammars) as well as my own theory.

Palabras clave: Origen del lenguaje, teoría del TESE, módulo, multimodularidad, simbiogénesis, emergencia, exaptación, gramáticas generativas no transformacional

3. La vida en el universo (Español)

Juan Carlos Vega Garzón. Laboratório de Tecnologia Educacional. Departamento de Bioquímica. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

One of the most exciting questions we can ask is if we alone in the universe. The earth is just one in a million planets in our galaxy. The Milky Way is one of many billions of galaxies in the universe. It seems reasonable to ask if there is life on other planets or is exclusive to ours. If the latter is the case, what special conditions allowed the emergence of life?

Palabras clave: Astrobiología, universo, origen de la vida, evolución, planeta tierra, principio antrópico, zona habitable, multiverso, materia, termodinámica

4. La unificación de la física de Maxwell y su idea de “fertilización mutua de las ciencias” como desiderata metodológicos no reduccionistas para la ciencia social (Español)

Jordi Mundó. Filosofía y Metodología de las Ciencias Sociales. Departamento de Teoría Sociológica, Filosofía del Derecho y Metodología de las Ciencias Sociales. Universidad de Barcelona, España

Maxwell’s contribution to unification of electricity, magnetism and optics completely changed nineteenth-century physics, and its recategorization set the bases for the twentieth-century physics revolution. Modern social science is a fragmented field, characterized both by a poor integration between the concepts of economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and history, and for a striking isolation from natural science. This article will explore the importance of incorporating to social science the methodological criteria of Maxwell’s own conception in favor of a non reductionist wide-ranging causal and conceptual integration between social science and natural science.

Palabras clave: Unificación, fertilización cruzada de las ciencias, Maxwellismo metodológico, integración conceptual, filosofía de las ciencias sociales, analogía, heurística, metáfora científica

5. Sobre el rechazo de artículos científicos (Español)

Pablo del Monte Luna. Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, La Paz, BCS, México
Roberto Carmona. Departamento Académico de Biología Marina. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, México
José de la Cruz Agüero. Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, La Paz, BCS, México

When an academic researcher wishes to communicate his (her) ideas or investigation results, he (she) must submit them to evaluation in a scientific journal. The manuscript goes through three filters. Two of them, at the beginning and at the end of the publication process, are the editor’s doing; in the middle, at least two referees posit a qualified opinion. This system, unbiased by design, may be corrupted by misconducts committed by these actors, independently of the article’s quality. We present a critique on the role of the key players within the editorial process, supported by three documented case studies that exemplify some flaws in the peer review publication system. While rejection to be published may be an unavoidable situation for any researcher who chooses to publish his (her) work, such rejection should be broadly justified in the understanding that what is at stake is the improvement of knowledge generation and the enrichment of a common topic. Due to the difficulties to eradicate wrongdoings during the publication process, we suggest that the impact of such practices may be moderated through double blind reviews (authors and reviewers anonymous to one another), to offer non-economic rewards to reviewers, and redistributing the editor’s responsibilities
among different associate editors.

Palabras clave: proceso editorial, generación de conocimiento, sistema de publicación, opinión doble ciego, rechazo del manuscrito, ética científica, revista científica, sesgo editorial, editor, árbitro, editor asociado, engaños editoriales, políticas académicas

6. Leyes y modelos en la explicación biológica (Español)

Víctor Luque. Departamento de Logica y Filosofia de la Ciencia, Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva (Grupo Genética Evolutiva), Universitat de València, España

For years, the controversy over the existence of laws in biology has concerned and confronted philosophers and biologists. Even so, it could be said that biologists have been working without them during the last hundred and fifty years. They have using their time to developed (essentially mathematical) models to express biological facts. Thus, the challenge is to find out how models explain. Alisa Bokulich, in a recent paper called “How scientific models can explain”, analyzes three theoretical approximations to the explanatory capacity of scientific models (Carl Craver’s mechanistic model explanation; Mehmet Elgin and Elliott Sober’s covering-law model explanation, and Ernan McMullin’s causal model explanation) and proposes her own. We study such model, known as model explanation, and use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model as an example of what a biological law can be.

Palabras clave: Leyes, modelos, Bokulich, explicación, modelo de Hardy- Weinberg, Sober, modelos matemáticos, proporción de sexos de Fisher, explicación del modelo, McMullin

7. El popperiano como un pirrónico: La noción de justificación epistémica en Karl Popper (Español)

Armando Cíntora G.. Departamento Filosofía, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México.

Popper argues in the Logic of Scientific Discovery (published in 1934 in German) against both an externalist and an internalist epistemic justification for observational statements; Popper then opts in the LSD for a position that substitutes the justification of the basic statements of science with their criticism; and he stops a regress of criticisms with some conventional decisions. Later, in the Open Society (1945) he argues for a critical rationalism, one that requires some argumentatively unjustified and unjustifiable presuppositions, i.e., it requires some dogmas. The late Popper (circa 1983), seems inclined towards a pancritical rationalism, a position that leads, however, to a logical paradox, which can only be evaded if some presuppositions are to be accepted as not criticizable. Thus, the Popperian requires either some unjustifiable or some uncriticizable presuppositions. These dogmatic presuppositions should be believed passively and judgment about their truth value should be suspended. This is the Popperian’s Pyrrhonian attitude.

Palabras clave: racionalismo crítico, acrítica racionalismo, racionalismo pancrítico, Pirronismo, K. Popper, dogmatismo, incritizable, justificación

8. Flexibilidad cognitiva e inferencia (Español)

Mariela Aguilera. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba y CONICET, Argentina

Some philosophers, such as Davidson and McDowell, claim that rationality involves a contrast between the subjective and the objective, between mind and world. For these authors, such contrast merges into reflective thought, through linguistic competence. Millikan, instead, has argued that rationality can be placed within non linguistic creatures, which exhibit a first contrast between mind and world by means of behavioral flexibility, as a result of cognitive integration and affordances. In this paper, I will identify what I call “cognitive flexibility”—a middle ground between reflective thought and behavioral flexibility. Cognitive flexibility paves the route to another sort of process-rationality, which results from reasoning and inference. Moreover, I argue that certain kinds of primates are rational in this way through instrumental reasoning.

Palabras clave: Millikan, racionalidad, lenguaje, pensamiento segundo orden, animal la cognición, integración cognitiva, independencia de estímulo, flexibilidad de comportamiento, affordances, razón instrumental, razonamiento

9. Sobre el concepto popular de acción intencional. Una revisión a los acercamientos experimentales (Español)

David Fajardo Chica. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad del Valle, Medellín, Colombia.
Sergio Monares. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad del Valle, Medellín, Colombia.
Gimena Villegas. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad del Valle, Medellín, Colombia.
Andrés Zulez. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad del Valle, Medellín, Colombia.

We review here some efforts made by social psychology and experimental philosophy to elucidate how does the concept of intentionality apply when collateral effects occur. We attend to some of the tests made and the hypotheses offered, as well as an overview of the discussions involved.

Palabras clave: Intencionalidad, filosofía experimental, sentido común, popular psicología

10. Representación y causalidad en las discusiones actuales sobre cognición: El caso “Watt governor” (Español)

Federico Castellano. CONICET/ Instituto de Humanidades (IDH – CONICET), Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina

the cognitive sciences have been involved in a debate between Representationalists and anti-Representationalists as to the representational status of the Watt governor. Tim van Gelder has argued that the Watt governor is a paradigmatic example of an intelligent system, which is not in need of internal representations to carry out its cognitive activity. In response, William Bechtel has argued that, given the ‘stand-in’ definition of representation, such artifact should be interpreted as representing. My aim in this paper is to give a negative answer to the question. To support this I will argue that it is essential for the representations to be normative, which means that they are only attributable to those who/which have the capacity to correct their behavior. Being so, the governor should not be located within the set of representational systems, because it is not possible to find in its behaviors signs of this normative capacity.

Palabras clave: Computacionalismo, representación mental, enfoques dinámicos a la ciencia cognitiva, representacionalismo vs. anti- representacionalismo, Watt gobernador, isomorfismo, realizabilidad universal, tergiversación, corrección, normatividad

11. Complicity of meaning and the original presence: Intertwining relationship with the life-world in Merleau-Ponty (English)

Márcio Junglos. Universidade do Contestado-UnC, Santa Catarina, Brazil. / Phd student from Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul-PURS, Brazil. / Researcher of the Phenomenology Research Center-PRC (2013) at Southern Illinois University, Illinois, USA

This work attempts to trace the intertwining relationship in the life-world as Merleau-Ponty describes it in the Phenomenology of Perception. As we start to reflect on his concept of body, the world, the others, and the I, we begin to realize the originality that each of these terms conveys, thereby enriching our experience in the world. Under these circumstances, we will no longer place the I as the center of meaning, but as the complicity of meaning due to its intertwining relationship with the life-world. The original presence brings an ambiguity that is ungraspable by objective thought, although it is experienced in the very situation that we encounter ourselves.

Palabras clave: Merleau-Ponty, phenomenology, perception, complicity of meaning, original presence, intertwining, body, other, world, ego, cogito, I.

12. Arqueología y la geometría fractal. Una conjunción para la investigación del pasado (Español)

Gustavo Sandoval García. Posgrado en Filosofía de la Ciencia, Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

In this paper I will outline three forms of relating fractal geometry and archaeological research: 1) Describing spatial patterns in material culture; 2) describing material culture via fractal dimension and, 3) detecting past phenomena with fractal attributes. I will point some virtues and problematic issues concerning each of them. My main purpose is to show that using concepts or tools from fractal geometry does not imply the detection of complex adaptive phenomena.

Palabras clave: Arqueología, geometría fractal, metodología, pruebas, epistemología, patrón, vestigios materiales

13. Del allure en Canguilhem a la pulsión en Freud: De norma vital y social a pulsión y cultura (Español)

Leslie Nichols. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago de Chile

Georges Canguilhem proposes a radical change in the both concepts of health and disease. He posits a flexible limit within the subjectivity of the living, in their capacity to establish new vital norms that deal with environmental demands. This ability to establish new norms, an autre allure of life, is a peculiarity of the living, an inherent, intrinsic and permanent force. In the present article I attempt to analyze the converging points between the theory of the new pace [allure] of vital norms proposed by Canguilhem and the concept of drive in Sigmund Freud. It also seems interesting to see how these authors, at a particular moment of their theories, establish correlations between individual and social development.

Palabras clave: enfermedad, salud, normalidad, normatividad, norma fundamental, norma social, ritmo atractivo, unidad, representación, cultura Canguilhem, Freud

14. ¿Es posible una conciliación entre la psicología evolucionista y el feminismo? (Español)

Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza. Institute for Logic, Cognition, Language and Information, Facultad de Filosofía y CC.EE., Universidad del País Vasco, España

If there is something nowadays that characterizes research agendas in many scientific areas is interdisciplinarity. Such agendas aim for an ideal integration of methodologies, vocabulary and discursive reasoning between what seems at first distinctive fields of research. Two fields of research which face difficulties in their mutual merging and contact are evolutionary psychology and Feminism (in its form of gender studies). In this paper we address the historical context and the intellectual development of both fields, clarifying some misunderstandings responsible for the lack of dialogue between them, as well as exposing their commonalities for a future consilience

Palabras clave: psicología evolutiva, Feminismo, consiliencia, diferencias biológicas, determinismo genético, innato y adquirido

15. Naturaleza, sociedad, política y ciencia. Apuntes críticos de las escisiones y las fragmentaciones (Español)

Natalia Fischetti. Instituto de Ciencias Humanas, Sociales y Ambientales, CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina

We present some notes on the concept of nature from a critical perspective in epistemology. We posit the disassembly of the founding fracture of the capitalist system and modern science: the nature-society dualism. Human alienation from nature gives substance to its commodification. Similarly, fragmented knowledge and science subdivided into increasingly specialized disciplines are functional to the status quo. We are committed to the integration of knowledge and to a transforming historical-critical interdisciplinary work.

Palabras clave: naturaleza-sociedad, cultura, ecología, política, desarrollo, capitalismo, epistemología, interdisciplinariedad, teoría crítica, ideología

16. Sobre el carácter fetichista del lenguaje (Español)

Alan Heiblum. UNTREF, 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Most of the more valuable and well-deserved praises that language allows are dedicated to language itself. We will put here into question such relevance. We posit that science and its philosophy focus on the relation between concepts and their referents; a relation where language is always present, yet its role its not a privileged one.

Palabras clave: lenguaje como fetiche, generación de conceptos, referencia referente, comunicación, pensamiento y lenguaje, giro icónico, performancy, descripción, juegos de lenguaje, juegos del mundo, metáfora

17. La originalidad: Entre la relevancia y el ingenio (Español)

Gustavo Caponi. Departamento de Filosofía, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil

Palabras clave: Wittgenstein, contribución original, relevancia, humanística, alto impacto, didáctico, rigor comparativo, camaradería

18. Oficio de “chanta”. Hombre y técnica (Español)

Fernando Auciello. Culturas Lúdicas, Instituto Superior de Formación Yuguets, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Palabras clave: intimidad, Heidegger, gratuidad, trabajos forzados, prácticas profesionales, práctica, Gelassenheit

19. ¡Presto, ciencia! Un pequeño análisis de la ciencia a partir de la magia (Español)

Javier Díaz Barriga López. Posgrado en Ciencias Cognitivas, Universidad Autónoma de Morelos, México

Why may be attractive for someone interested in science to consider the phenomenon of illusionism and stage-magic? Basically, because it would turn out useful to develop defenses against events that diminish or weaken our attention and interpretation capacities, things that leave us vulnerable to fall inadvertently into deceptions. We’ll reflect on the procedures of the magician tricks, considering examples of how we are fallible and manipulable to the degree of being lead to live an experience that is not the case, i.e. an illusion. This can make us reflect on the scientific realm, its frequent non explicit assumptions and systematic closed procedures.

Palabras clave: magia, percepción, atención, ilusión mental, auto-engaño, sistema de creencia cerrado, presuposición, interpretación

20. IN MEMORIAM: Werner Callebaut (Español)

Paola Hernández Chávez. Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano

Werner Callebaut, amigo, colega, referente común para aquellos a quienes nos intrigan las incógnitas de las ciencias de la vida, murió el pasado 6 de noviembre mientras dormía. Nació en Mechelen, Bélgica, el 7 de octubre de 1952. Cursó sus estudios en filosofía en la Universidad de Ghent, donde recibió su PhD en 1983, especializándose después en filosofía de la ciencia…

Palabras clave: teoría de la biología, ciencia y tecnología, historia de la ciencia


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