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Número 17. Ludus Vitalis

Detalle del Número 17 de Ludus Vitalis
Ludus Vitalis

Ludus Vitalis

Revista científica. Nº 17. Vol. 10. 2002. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y Edicions UIB de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Historia, Psicología, Filosofía, Primatología, Ciencias Cognitivas.
Palabras clave: filosofía, filosofía de la biología, evolución, antropología, ciencias, naturaleza, técnica, mente, cerebro

Autores: James Maffie, Francisco Piñón Gaytán, Jorge Martínez Contreras, Alejandro Tomasini Bassols, Alicia Irene Bugallo, Teresa Kwiatkowska, Raúl Gutiérrez Lombardo, Álvaro Moreno, Karin Verelst, Eduardo Césarman, Norman Brachfeld, Bruno Estañol, Guillermo Lorenzo González, Gloria Cava, Luis Rojo, David Alfaro Siqueiros Beltrones, Francesc Mestres


Técnica y naturaleza, historia y filosofía de las teorías evolucionistas, epistemología de las ciencias de la vida, paleoantropología y estudios sobre lo humano, relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento, conducta y el juego de los conceptos.


“We eat of the earth then the earth eats us”: The concept of nature in pre-Hispanic Nahua thought (Pág. 5-20)

James Maffie

Conquest-Era Nahua thought founded its concept of nature upon a monistic metaphysics that maintained that there exists only one thing: a dynamic, vital, vivifying, and perpetually self-generating and self-regenerating sacred energy or force. Nature is generated by this force, from this force, as one aspect, facet, or moment of its eternal self-regeneration. Nature is accordingly processive and alive with sacred energy. All things in nature are organically interdependent upon one another, and all are bound by relationships of mutual reciprocity. Human beings are thoroughgoingly natural creatures, and hence wholly implicated within these interdependencies and relationships of mutual reciprocity. In short, humans are in the world as well as of the world.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Nature, Nahua cosmovision, pantheism, monism, interdependance, sacred energy, self-generation reciprocity


Naturaleza y vida campesina en la cultura latina (De re rustica) (Pág. 21-36)

Francisco Piñón Gaytán

Nature and rural life in classical Roman Culture De Re Rustica. The concept of nature was always important in the ancient world. Gods and men communicated between themselves in their myths, in transfigurations, by means of what for all of them was nature. Nature as a criterion, as a moral standard, not only the stage for doing, a space for human activity, but also the object of ethical intentionality. It was so in the Greek world and also in the Roman world. The science of agriculture was, precisely, an art, ars. Consequently, on writing about it, a rich and varied literature arose. A concept of nature, thus, that was at the same time a concept of life and, in those times, of rural life. Hence the title and the purpose of this paper.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Nature, norm, morality, ethics, classical rural life, Roman gods, agriculture.


Hombre y animales, naturaleza compartida. Montaigne y Charron, pensadores contemporáneos (Pág. 37-50)

Jorge Martínez Contreras

Humans and animals, a shared nature. On Montaigne and Charron In the Apology of Raimond Sebond, the first French philosopher, Montaigne, discusses the frontier that separates humans from beasts. He proposes that this boundary is almost inexistent, since one can find all or almost all of human attributes in animals. This is especially true when one thinks of sentiments and emotions, but also in some expressions of genuine affection, of reciprocity, of true communication. Although this anti-anthropocentric stand is not new in western tradition, it finds in Montaigne and in one of his disciples, Charron, strong arguments against the dualistic claims of Cartesians that are still used in contemporary discussions concerning the right of animals, the rights of non-humans. In fact, Descartes made a progress for human rights when he declared that “common sense” was universal in men, but he also made of animals simple machines. How can we argue in favor of a moral stance towards living beings? Five centuries ago a thinker and “animal lover” offered us interesting arguments.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Montaigne, Charron, Sebond, Descartes, beasts, animal nature, joint nature, cruelty, benevolence, animal rights.


Naturaleza, leyes y práxis (Pág. 51-64)

Alejandro Tomasini Bassols

The idea of nature points in two different directions. On the one hand, it stands in need of conceptual clarification; on the other, it makes us think about practical ways of dealing with it. In this paper, I criticize the view that the so called ‘laws of nature’ are descriptions of the world and I argue in favor of a normative view of them. On the other hand, I suggest a somewhat pessimistic conception with respect to the systematic destruction of nature in the present capitalist system.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Nature, regularities, observations, language, knowledge, laws, science, manipulation, morality, politics, capitalism


Las ideas de naturaleza en la ecología profunda y sus implicaciones prácticas (Pág. 65-93)

Alicia Irene Bugallo

The ideas on nature in deep ecology and their practical implications Norwegian ecosopher Arne Naess distinguished ’deep’ from ’shallow’ or merely technical approaches to ecological issues. The first proposal of the Deep Ecology Movement (1973) was a practical derivation from Naess personal philosophy called Ecosophy T. It is strongly inspired in Spinozan pantheism, Gandhian non-violence and Mahayana Buddhism. The idea of nature as an interrelated whole is rooted in a monistic gestalt ontology. Deep Ecology is a tool for enabling systematic discussion on global views; of how norms and consequences interact. It also enables conflicts on values to be systematically discussed. Those who join efforts to promote basic changes in human attitudes and policies related to nature have different philosophical conceptions of substance or nature, as well as diverse religious creeds. Supporters of Deep Ecology rely on a pragmatic intention (such as the one found in James, Schiller and even Protagoras) and a methodological route that can lead them from ultimate principles to concrete decisions. Far from resting into metaphysical or academic discussions, they incorporate the materialistic naturalistic concepts of ecologic sciences, and the points of view of new schools of conservation philosophy, with complementary approaches from conservation biology and ecosystems ecology.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Ecophilosophy, monism, pragmatism, conservation philosophy, sustainable future.


El concepto de naturaleza. Algunas reflexiones históricas y contemporáneas (Pág. 95-110)

Teresa Kwiatkowska

The concept of nature. Some contemporary and historical ideas Nature positions itself amongst a set of other terms that are normatively loaded, like wilderness or environment. This article outlines some major meanings that have been present in Western thought since ancient times. It moves on to delineate the confrontation between the view that asserts the independent reality of nature and the one that sees it as a mere cultural construction. I also overview the use of the term in the Environmental Ethics discussions. All this is undertaken with specific reference to the environmental policies of protection and restoration of the natural areas.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Nature, environment, wilderness, culture.


La teoría de la evolución y la Iglesia Católica (Pág. 111-122)

Raúl Gutiérrez Lombardo

The theory of evolution and the Catholic Church This paper intends to explain how the Catholic doctrine assimilated the theory of evolution, something that was done with many reserves and, especially, within a concept of determined science, the so-called “empirological theory of sciences”. This allowed it to find a theoretical justification with the idea of Creation, the main philosophical postulate of such doctrine. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, until this day, Catholic philosophy has not been able to put forward a scientific explanation that reconciles its philosophical postulates with the theory of evolution, since it has not offered a methodological solution to the origin of the living world’s complexity.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Evolution theory, Christian Naturalism, Christian Evolutionism, natural selection, Creationism, immanent laws.


El problema de la relación entre autonomía e información en la estructura de la organización biológica (Pág. 123-147)

Álvaro Moreno

The problem on the relationship between autonomy and information in biological information structure Autonomy and information appear as two fundamental but opposite principles in biological organization. The origin of autonomous systems is conceivable as some natural development of the physico-chemical mechanisms that rule self-organizing processes, whereas information seems to be an organizational principle incompatible with the former. However, the origin of information can be linked with the development of a new stage in the evolution of autonomous systems, that of their insertion in a collective meta-system. Thus, information becomes fundamental in the generation of new ways of organizational dependence of individual systems regarding to a wider spatial and temporal organization.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Autonomy, information, code, biological organization, meta-network, dynamic decoupling, operational closure, evolution, natural selection, registry.


Towards an ontology of experience. Methodological reflections (Pág. 149-162)

Karin Verelst

This paper attempts to throw some new light on the profligate globalization of the scientific and technological practices of present-day capitalist society by reckoning the specific ontology encoded in their procedures by means of which they operate. It is shown that the separating intervention in reality proper to these procedures, cognitive and empirical, can be traced back to the principles of the logical system underlying them since European Antiquity. This logical system allows for the generation of worldviews that, although at variance amongst themselves, share a fundamental feature: the separation between subject and object, between statical and dynamical, between man and world. The practices arising from such an externalized relation to the world then again amount to the imposition of an ontology upon reality that is not fit to it. In a subsequent movement, the argument leads to the question whether traces of a another intrinsical relation between man and world can be found, based on a different ontology. It is argued that such traces can indeed be found. Cases studied concern an example from within European culture itself, viz. the philosophy of L. Wittgenstein, and from another cultural realm, cq., the Chinese classical tradition. In a concluding paragraph the conditions for, and an outline of, a possible interrelation between the different ontologically marked approaches to our world are sketched.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Ontology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, logic, epistemology, cultural sciences, mythology, anthropology, methodology, Wittgenstein.


Entropy, the heart and the living systems (Pág. 163-174)

Eduardo Césarman, Norman Brachfeld, Bruno Estañol

There is a certain parallelism between the physiologic phenomena of the heart analyzed from the point of view of view of thermodynamics and some aspects of cellular development and evolution. The pumping heart cycles from a biological “active” state during systole to a mechanical “resting” state during diastole. But from a thermodynamic point of view the heart is active during relaxation or diastole and passive during contraction or systole. This profile is similar to that of dividing blastomeres supposing that heart muscle cells have used their developmental trajectory to set up contraction instead of cytokynesis. The diastolic cell would be viewed as being in a relatively immature condition and the systolic one as relatively senescent.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Heart, entropy, termodynamics, diastole, systole, muscle, mechanic, electric, metabolic, energy.


El origen del lenguaje como sobresalto natural. La actualidad de las ideas de Susan Langer sobre la evolución del lenguaje (Pág. 175-193)

Guillermo Lorenzo González

The origin of language as a natural schock. The actuality of Susan Langer ideas on language The theoretical bases of “Neo-Darwinism” (i.e., continuism, gradualism and adaptationism) are considered by many as some of the best-established truths in human knowledge. Therefore, it is amazing that some of the recent approaches to the issue of the origin and evolution of language do not abide by them. This paper states that such approaches are, however, legitimate, and do not involve any kind of break with the rational biological explanation. In this context, we specifically intend to rescue from oblivion the ideas of philosopher Susan K. Langer on the subject, which not only foresee Chomsky’s non-continuist and non-adaptationist approach, but also constitute in themselves a doubtlessly penetrating proposal.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Origin of language, Susan Langer, Chomsky, adaptationism, continuism, discontinuism, protolanguage, linguistics.


Las formas de la autoviolencia: El caso de los trastornos en la conducta alimentaria (Pág. 195-211)

Gloria Cava, Luis Rojo

The forms of self-violence: the case of eating disorders Disorders of feeding behavior result from the interaction of various biological, psychological and social factors. Among the social factors, the kind of upbringing or education that patients have been subject to stands out. It was traditionally considered that a style of upbringing based on overprotection or excessive affection (spoiling), especially on the part of the mother, was the root of several psychological conditions and, particularly, of eating disorders. This paper demonstrates that, contrary to that belief, an intense rejection by the father is the most important risk factor. Besides, it reveals that psychological sequelae of the father’s rejection, together with those associated to other types of abuse and neglect, such as sexual molestation or abuse during childhood, correlate with this kind of disorders which, in turn, may be defined as a form of self-violence that, in certain cases, may lead to the patient’s own death.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Aggressiveness, anorexia nerviosa, bulimia nerviosa, suicide, eating disorder.


Principios y actitudes filosóficas dentro de la investigación en biología (Pág. 213-220)

David Alfaro Siqueiros Beltrones


El difícil concepto de selección natural (Pág. 221-226)

Francesc Mestres



Número 16. Ludus Vitalis

Della del Número 15. Ludus Vitalis
Ludus Vitalis

Ludus Vitalis

Revista científica. Nº 16. Vol. 9. 2001. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y Edicions UIB de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Antropología, Historia, Psicología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: filosofía, filosofía de la biología, evolución, antropología, violencia, filosofía de la ciencia

Autores: Armando Cíntora, Johannes Borgstein, J. Félix Fuertes, Bruno Estañol, Eduardo Césarman, Teresa Kwiatkowska, Ricardo López Wilchis, Philippe Goujon, Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto, José Sanmartín, Miguel Bedolla, Steve Fuller, Cédric Grimoult


Historia y filosofía de las teorías evolucionistas, relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento, conducta, paleoantropología y estudios sobre lo humano, técnica y naturaleza y el juego de los conceptos.


L’évolution théorique d’un évolutionniste: Lucien Cuénot (Pág. 3-25)

Cédric Grimoult

This paper portrays the theoretical path followed by Lucien Cuénot, from the earlier 1890s to the years after the Second World War, concerning the question of evolutionary mechanisms. Once he precociously adopted Tranformism, he became one of the first French Neodarwinists in his rejection of the transmission of acquired characters. Adherent to Weismann’s ideas on the continuity of germinative plasma, Cuénot was concern all his life with the experiments supposed to prove Neolamarkism, current he contributed to bury once and for all. Since 1910, he seize the immense scope of Hugo de Vries’ work in the genetic field. Experimenting himself with mice, he validated Mendel’s laws for the Animal Kingdom and he did not hesitated to advance the theoretical consequences for Evolutionism. As the leading representative of the transformist school in France, he was involved with understanding the complex phenomenon of adaptation. Objector to the explanation provided by natural selection, he is the author of the concept of ‘preadaptation’, which he developed through all his life, and so he will relate to the synthetic theory of evolution. From the decade of 1920, distressed with the problems posed by coadaptation and orthogenesis, Cuénot will adhere to an extrascientific finalism. Changing drastically his views about nature, he missed the scientific revolution of the 1940s. However, his vast production and his exceptional theoretical lucidity during nearly fifty years, confer him a place in the history of Evolutionism. He notably remark the pertinence of most of his theorical choices within the framework of a selection of ideas founded in the experimental best, without considering the numerous social pressures of his time.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Lucien Cuénot, Evolutionism in France, Neolamarkism, adaptation, preadaptation, coadaptation, orthogenesis, evolutionary experimentation.


On the possible evolutionary justification of our epistemic capacities (Pág. 27-46)

Armando Cíntora

The Darwinian justification of the most basic methodological presuppositions of science is criticized; it is argued that this justificatory effort fails because it is viciously circular and because it confuses a causal or historical explanation with justification. Furthermore, even if our cognitive intuitions or dispositions have been selected by evolution, it doesn’t follow that these methodological intuitions are reliable, since survival doesn’t require their reliability, and this in turn implies that a belief in the Darwinian perspective itself could be false.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Evolutionary epistemology, cognitive faculties, evolutionary justification, viciously circular justification, adapatative architecture, innate capacities.


The oath of the Hippocratic physician as an Indo-european formula (Pág. 47-63)

Miguel Bedolla

The oath of physicians (orkos) is an indo-European formula reflecting the beliefs of this culture. It was written when the authority of the Indo-European worldview was declining. To support this thesis the paper shows that: (1) the Greeks were Indo-Europeans; (2) Indo-Europeans had a world vision that understood the cosmos as a society of gods and men, whose activities were grouped in three functions: Priests-lawyers, warriors and husbandmen. (3) Harmony in this society was maintained by rta, a force that set up a field of tension that aligned all ideas; (4) Rta demanded that gods and men be bound by the Principle of Reciprocity and Exchange creating a true friendship between them; (5) Each function had its own gods and responsibilities and its own brand of medicine; (6) Each Indo-European god has an equivalent among the Greek gods, and in particular those mentioned in the Oath; (7) The commitments in the oath are those of two of the Indo-European functions; (8) The oath ends with a formula that is Indo-European. The paper concludes with a reflection on the conditions that led to the writing of the oath, and what this meant for the faith of the people.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Orkos, Hippocratic oath, Indo-European worldview, rta, Principle of Reciprocity and Exchange, history of medicine, medical ethics.


El futuro desafío biológico a la teoría y a la práctica social (Pág. 65-88)

Steve Fuller

The future biological challenge to social theory and practice Biology very much remains ’the other’ of sociology. While this position is historically explicable, it is quickly becoming untenable. However, this does not mean that sociologists should turn into biologists. A sociology of biological knowledge readily shows that the two disciplines share more features than practitioners of either of them probably realize. Nevertheless, some recent attempts to bring biology and sociology closer together leave much to be desired, as they shortchange sociology’s contribution. My own strategy for interdisciplinary rapprochement is twofold. First, insight can be gained by treating sociology and biology as fields that historically have come to be mutually alienated, despite a significant overlap in cognitive interests. Second, perhaps the most fruitful focus for future interaction between sociology and biology is over matters in which innovative conceptions of the human condition have forced a reconceptualization of politics. These challenges arise in a neo-liberal ideological environment, which raises its own set of concerns, as epitomized by the phenomenon of ’bioprospecting’. I end by urging social theorists to resist the recent call to a ’Darwinian Left’ and look instead toward a ’critical sense of sympathy’ as the new basis for the social bond.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Sociology, biology, bioprospecting, Darwinian left, neo-liberalism, sympathy, disabilities, sociobiology, biotechnology, feminism


Bases biológicas y sociales de la violencia. Un viaje al cerebro de los violentos (Pág. 89-103)

José Sanmartín

Aggressiveness is innate. The amygdala is the neural center in charge of sorting out and integrating the automatic components of aggressive behavior. It also appears to be the brain structure in control of the instinctive inhibition of aggressiveness. There is also conscious control of aggressive behavior, in this case by the prefrontal cortex. When regulated by these controls, the display of aggressive conduct is biologically efficient. Violence and aggressiveness are not the same. Violence is hypertrophied aggressiveness. This hypertrophy may be due to problems affecting the innate mechanisms involved in the display of aggressive behavior or its control. In most cases, however, its origin lies in problems related to the ideas, thoughts, or feelings that the individual has acquired through life and that constitute the background against which the prefrontal cortex will interpret its emotions and resulting actions.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, Rafe nuclei, locus coeruleus, prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, ventromedial cortex, individual risk factors, familial risk factors, socioeconomic risk factors, cultural risk factors


Analogicidad del concepto de cultura (Pág. 105-133)

Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto

The concept of culture under analogical hermeneutics The conceptual constraints and the advocative mode of “the culture” oscillates between a purely arbitrary act and the acknowledgment of an indisputable fact. In other words, it is about the tension formed by the univocal and equivocal advocacy of the term “culture”. A caveat is advanced concerning ethic and epistemic implications if interpretation possibilities were limited to such advocative modes, where the concept of culture world loose all its pertinence and force. The problem should be discussed recurring to the notion of analogcity; analogical hermeneutics (M. Beuchot) allows us to comprehend the universal potential of certain aspects of every culture—including the non-human ones— without devaluating its singularity or its current difference.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Equivocalness, univocalness, analogicity, Sociobiology, Great Ape Project, humanity, anthropoid, culturoid


The international regulation of biotechnology. The case of rDNA techniques (1973-1982) (Pág. 135-160)

Philippe Goujon

The 1970s rapidly became a focus for public interest and excitement. All areas of biology were influenced by the revolution in technical developments and in particular by the rDNA technique. This technology has been used, and still is used, to create recombinant DNA from a variety of viral, animal and bacterial sources. There is serious concern that some of these artificial recombinant DNA molecules could prove biologically hazardous. This article is about the adventure of the regulation of the use of rDNA technique, research and work. In focusing on public policy and regulation, and in particular on the European public and science policies, the intention is to study how societies learn to digest new knowledge and to manage its consequences. Taking into account that this learning process is a multidimensional one and that the debates about biotechnology were from the start international, we will show that the process of regulating a new technology is very complex. We will also reveal how ethical and moral intentions can be confronted, in the debates and negotiating processes, with other interests, such as personal, sectorial, community, national, international, economic, legal and political interests.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Biotechnology, biotechnology regulation, biotechnology decision, rDNA techniques, Asilomar, biohazard, science policy, genetic engineering


Ética ambiental e ingeniería genética (Pág. 161-176)

Teresa Kwiatkowska, Ricardo López Wilchis

Environmental ethics and genetic engineening The constant expansion of genetic engineering with its capacity to manipulate life matter in its more fundamental molecular construction is generating important ethical and philosophical debates. The potential danger of their practical applications are the main worries. The intention of this work is to approach a subject left until now at the margin in the public debate, that is, the impact of genetic engineering towards the natural environment. Benefits and contributions of genetic engineering are indicated, as well as its complementary risks and fears. The discussion is framed within the actual or potential impact on the environment caused by the techniques closely related to genetic engineering. The ethical attitudes (Deep ecology, Earth ethics, Biocentric holism, and Environmental integrity) are reviewed critically, trying to provide a frame of reference for the search and formulation of useful, responsible and cautious moral guidelines. It is also indicated the enormous disparity between the time in which genetic engineering and the ethical reflection treat a common topic, as well as the differences in method and context between both disciplines.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Environmental ethics, genetic engineering, biotechnology, environment, nature, Deep ecology, telos, integrity


Biological and extrabiological memory (Pág. 177-179)

Bruno Estañol, Eduardo Césarman


El mito de Prometeo: Versión adolescente de la termofísica (Pág. 181-195)

J. Félix Fuertes


Research on research. Cutting the Gordian Knot of science… with Occam’s Razor (Pág. 197-202)

Johannes Borgstein



Presentación del Libro Reflexiones sobre la Violencia

Presentación del libro Reflexiones sobre la Violencia

Reflexiones sobre la Violencia - SIGLO XXI (MÉXICO), 2012.
Reflexiones sobre la Violencia – SIGLO XXI (MÉXICO), 2012.

Por considerarlo un tema de gran actualidad, reproducimos las palabras que pronunció Raúl Gutiérrez Lombardo en la presentación del libro “Reflexiones sobre la violencia”, en Valencia, España, el 18 de octubre de 2010.

Me siento muy honrado de compartir esta mesa con tan distinguidos filósofos, me refiero a José Sanmartín, Jaime Labastida, José Luis Vera y Jorge Martínez, porque, además de ser filósofos, son escritores, a quienes siempre es un placer leerles.

Asimismo, quiero agradecer al Centro Reina Sofía para el Estudio de la Violencia y a la Valencian International University por permitirme, en nombre del Centro de Estudios Filosóficos Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano, estar aquí otra vez gracias a su generosa hospitalidad.

Quiero hacer una reflexión brevísima sobre este libro, el cual pienso es un libro muy bien logrado porque, al mismo tiempo, posee tres características difíciles de encontrar en una sola publicación.

Es un libro realista, esto es: está basado en la ciencia.

Es un libro racionalista, esto es: está fundamentado en la razón filosófica.

Y es un libro político, esto es: explica un problema, analiza sus causas, sus efectos, sus manifestaciones, busca formas de atacarlo, y da maneras de prevenirlo. Es decir, es un libro políticamente correcto, muy correcto.

Por esto último, quiero aprovechar la ocasión para añadir algo políticamente incorrecto, muy incorrecto. Bueno, no tan incorrecto como para hablar de lo que pasa en España, no me corresponde, pero con lo que pasa en México me basta y me sobra.

En el mes de mayo pasado que estuve aquí en Valencia invitado por el rector Sanmartín a la investidura de Doctor Honoris Causa del profesor Carl Mitcham, expuse unas palabras al equipo de trabajo de la VIU que terminé con una cita del filósofo francés, también escritor, Edgar Morin, tomada de una entrevista que le hizo el diario El País el 17 de enero de 2010 titulada “Elogio de la metamorfosis”, en donde Morin dice que el objetivo ahora es salvar a la humanidad, y que para ello urge cambiar nuestros modos de pensar y de vivir, para lo cual propone la idea de metamorfosis, más rica que la de revolución, porque aporta la esperanza de un mundo mejor. Su argumento es que cuando un sistema viviente es incapaz de resolver sus problemas vitales por sí mismo, se degrada, se desintegra, a no ser que esté en condiciones de originar un metasistema capaz de hacerlo y, entonces, se crea ex novo.

Hoy quiero citar también a otro filósofo, esta vez norteamericano, que, en una entrevista que le hizo el diario Público Internacional el 8 de agosto pasado en París, con motivo del estreno de su película “Conocerás al hombre de tus sueños”. Me refiero a Woody Allen, quien en dicha entrevista este genial director de cine dijo:

“La vida es una tortura a la que estamos enganchados… es una agonía continua, pero que si le atacaran en un callejón oscuro a punta de pistola se pondría de rodillas ante su ejecutor para que le dejara seguir viviendo”

La película empieza con una cita del Macbeth de Shakespeare:

“La vida es un cuento narrado por un idiota, lleno de ruido y de furia, y que nada significa”.

Y Allen, ante la pregunta de si así ve la vida, responde:

“La vida es un proyecto estúpido y sin ningún tipo de sentido. La única manera de sobrevivir es contarse mentiras… porque la felicidad depende del grado de habilidad que tengas para el autoengaño”.

Termino con otra cita de otro filósofo escritor francés, Albert Camus, citado a su vez por el filósofo escritor español amigo nuestro, Camilo José Cela Conde, en su libro “Ahora mismo, desde siempre”, editado por el Centro Lombardo Toledano, donde dice que tal vez habría que darle la razón a Camus cuando decía que el único asunto humano serio es el del suicidio. Con lo anterior quiero decir que vivimos una crisis de civilización que nos está llevando al suicidio, es más, creo que la vivimos desde que la cooperación que llevó a los seres humanos al uso progresivo de la inteligencia y el lenguaje, dejó de ser una ventaja adaptativa producto de la evolución biológica, porque es el egoísmo el que ha campeado a lo largo de nuestra evolución cultural, movido siempre por el culto a la violencia.

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