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Número 16. Ludus Vitalis

Della del Número 15. Ludus Vitalis
Ludus Vitalis

Ludus Vitalis

Revista científica. Nº 16. Vol. 9. 2001. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y Edicions UIB de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Antropología, Historia, Psicología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: filosofía, filosofía de la biología, evolución, antropología, violencia, filosofía de la ciencia

Autores: Armando Cíntora, Johannes Borgstein, J. Félix Fuertes, Bruno Estañol, Eduardo Césarman, Teresa Kwiatkowska, Ricardo López Wilchis, Philippe Goujon, Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto, José Sanmartín, Miguel Bedolla, Steve Fuller, Cédric Grimoult

Descripción:

Historia y filosofía de las teorías evolucionistas, relación mente-cuerpo, conocimiento, conducta, paleoantropología y estudios sobre lo humano, técnica y naturaleza y el juego de los conceptos.

ARTÍCULOS:


L’évolution théorique d’un évolutionniste: Lucien Cuénot (Pág. 3-25)

Cédric Grimoult

This paper portrays the theoretical path followed by Lucien Cuénot, from the earlier 1890s to the years after the Second World War, concerning the question of evolutionary mechanisms. Once he precociously adopted Tranformism, he became one of the first French Neodarwinists in his rejection of the transmission of acquired characters. Adherent to Weismann’s ideas on the continuity of germinative plasma, Cuénot was concern all his life with the experiments supposed to prove Neolamarkism, current he contributed to bury once and for all. Since 1910, he seize the immense scope of Hugo de Vries’ work in the genetic field. Experimenting himself with mice, he validated Mendel’s laws for the Animal Kingdom and he did not hesitated to advance the theoretical consequences for Evolutionism. As the leading representative of the transformist school in France, he was involved with understanding the complex phenomenon of adaptation. Objector to the explanation provided by natural selection, he is the author of the concept of ‘preadaptation’, which he developed through all his life, and so he will relate to the synthetic theory of evolution. From the decade of 1920, distressed with the problems posed by coadaptation and orthogenesis, Cuénot will adhere to an extrascientific finalism. Changing drastically his views about nature, he missed the scientific revolution of the 1940s. However, his vast production and his exceptional theoretical lucidity during nearly fifty years, confer him a place in the history of Evolutionism. He notably remark the pertinence of most of his theorical choices within the framework of a selection of ideas founded in the experimental best, without considering the numerous social pressures of his time.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Lucien Cuénot, Evolutionism in France, Neolamarkism, adaptation, preadaptation, coadaptation, orthogenesis, evolutionary experimentation.

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On the possible evolutionary justification of our epistemic capacities (Pág. 27-46)

Armando Cíntora

The Darwinian justification of the most basic methodological presuppositions of science is criticized; it is argued that this justificatory effort fails because it is viciously circular and because it confuses a causal or historical explanation with justification. Furthermore, even if our cognitive intuitions or dispositions have been selected by evolution, it doesn’t follow that these methodological intuitions are reliable, since survival doesn’t require their reliability, and this in turn implies that a belief in the Darwinian perspective itself could be false.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Evolutionary epistemology, cognitive faculties, evolutionary justification, viciously circular justification, adapatative architecture, innate capacities.

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The oath of the Hippocratic physician as an Indo-european formula (Pág. 47-63)

Miguel Bedolla

The oath of physicians (orkos) is an indo-European formula reflecting the beliefs of this culture. It was written when the authority of the Indo-European worldview was declining. To support this thesis the paper shows that: (1) the Greeks were Indo-Europeans; (2) Indo-Europeans had a world vision that understood the cosmos as a society of gods and men, whose activities were grouped in three functions: Priests-lawyers, warriors and husbandmen. (3) Harmony in this society was maintained by rta, a force that set up a field of tension that aligned all ideas; (4) Rta demanded that gods and men be bound by the Principle of Reciprocity and Exchange creating a true friendship between them; (5) Each function had its own gods and responsibilities and its own brand of medicine; (6) Each Indo-European god has an equivalent among the Greek gods, and in particular those mentioned in the Oath; (7) The commitments in the oath are those of two of the Indo-European functions; (8) The oath ends with a formula that is Indo-European. The paper concludes with a reflection on the conditions that led to the writing of the oath, and what this meant for the faith of the people.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Orkos, Hippocratic oath, Indo-European worldview, rta, Principle of Reciprocity and Exchange, history of medicine, medical ethics.

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El futuro desafío biológico a la teoría y a la práctica social (Pág. 65-88)

Steve Fuller

The future biological challenge to social theory and practice Biology very much remains ’the other’ of sociology. While this position is historically explicable, it is quickly becoming untenable. However, this does not mean that sociologists should turn into biologists. A sociology of biological knowledge readily shows that the two disciplines share more features than practitioners of either of them probably realize. Nevertheless, some recent attempts to bring biology and sociology closer together leave much to be desired, as they shortchange sociology’s contribution. My own strategy for interdisciplinary rapprochement is twofold. First, insight can be gained by treating sociology and biology as fields that historically have come to be mutually alienated, despite a significant overlap in cognitive interests. Second, perhaps the most fruitful focus for future interaction between sociology and biology is over matters in which innovative conceptions of the human condition have forced a reconceptualization of politics. These challenges arise in a neo-liberal ideological environment, which raises its own set of concerns, as epitomized by the phenomenon of ’bioprospecting’. I end by urging social theorists to resist the recent call to a ’Darwinian Left’ and look instead toward a ’critical sense of sympathy’ as the new basis for the social bond.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Sociology, biology, bioprospecting, Darwinian left, neo-liberalism, sympathy, disabilities, sociobiology, biotechnology, feminism

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Bases biológicas y sociales de la violencia. Un viaje al cerebro de los violentos (Pág. 89-103)

José Sanmartín

Aggressiveness is innate. The amygdala is the neural center in charge of sorting out and integrating the automatic components of aggressive behavior. It also appears to be the brain structure in control of the instinctive inhibition of aggressiveness. There is also conscious control of aggressive behavior, in this case by the prefrontal cortex. When regulated by these controls, the display of aggressive conduct is biologically efficient. Violence and aggressiveness are not the same. Violence is hypertrophied aggressiveness. This hypertrophy may be due to problems affecting the innate mechanisms involved in the display of aggressive behavior or its control. In most cases, however, its origin lies in problems related to the ideas, thoughts, or feelings that the individual has acquired through life and that constitute the background against which the prefrontal cortex will interpret its emotions and resulting actions.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, Rafe nuclei, locus coeruleus, prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, ventromedial cortex, individual risk factors, familial risk factors, socioeconomic risk factors, cultural risk factors

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Analogicidad del concepto de cultura (Pág. 105-133)

Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto

The concept of culture under analogical hermeneutics The conceptual constraints and the advocative mode of “the culture” oscillates between a purely arbitrary act and the acknowledgment of an indisputable fact. In other words, it is about the tension formed by the univocal and equivocal advocacy of the term “culture”. A caveat is advanced concerning ethic and epistemic implications if interpretation possibilities were limited to such advocative modes, where the concept of culture world loose all its pertinence and force. The problem should be discussed recurring to the notion of analogcity; analogical hermeneutics (M. Beuchot) allows us to comprehend the universal potential of certain aspects of every culture—including the non-human ones— without devaluating its singularity or its current difference.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Equivocalness, univocalness, analogicity, Sociobiology, Great Ape Project, humanity, anthropoid, culturoid

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The international regulation of biotechnology. The case of rDNA techniques (1973-1982) (Pág. 135-160)

Philippe Goujon

The 1970s rapidly became a focus for public interest and excitement. All areas of biology were influenced by the revolution in technical developments and in particular by the rDNA technique. This technology has been used, and still is used, to create recombinant DNA from a variety of viral, animal and bacterial sources. There is serious concern that some of these artificial recombinant DNA molecules could prove biologically hazardous. This article is about the adventure of the regulation of the use of rDNA technique, research and work. In focusing on public policy and regulation, and in particular on the European public and science policies, the intention is to study how societies learn to digest new knowledge and to manage its consequences. Taking into account that this learning process is a multidimensional one and that the debates about biotechnology were from the start international, we will show that the process of regulating a new technology is very complex. We will also reveal how ethical and moral intentions can be confronted, in the debates and negotiating processes, with other interests, such as personal, sectorial, community, national, international, economic, legal and political interests.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Biotechnology, biotechnology regulation, biotechnology decision, rDNA techniques, Asilomar, biohazard, science policy, genetic engineering

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Ética ambiental e ingeniería genética (Pág. 161-176)

Teresa Kwiatkowska, Ricardo López Wilchis

Environmental ethics and genetic engineening The constant expansion of genetic engineering with its capacity to manipulate life matter in its more fundamental molecular construction is generating important ethical and philosophical debates. The potential danger of their practical applications are the main worries. The intention of this work is to approach a subject left until now at the margin in the public debate, that is, the impact of genetic engineering towards the natural environment. Benefits and contributions of genetic engineering are indicated, as well as its complementary risks and fears. The discussion is framed within the actual or potential impact on the environment caused by the techniques closely related to genetic engineering. The ethical attitudes (Deep ecology, Earth ethics, Biocentric holism, and Environmental integrity) are reviewed critically, trying to provide a frame of reference for the search and formulation of useful, responsible and cautious moral guidelines. It is also indicated the enormous disparity between the time in which genetic engineering and the ethical reflection treat a common topic, as well as the differences in method and context between both disciplines.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Environmental ethics, genetic engineering, biotechnology, environment, nature, Deep ecology, telos, integrity

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Biological and extrabiological memory (Pág. 177-179)

Bruno Estañol, Eduardo Césarman

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El mito de Prometeo: Versión adolescente de la termofísica (Pág. 181-195)

J. Félix Fuertes

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Research on research. Cutting the Gordian Knot of science… with Occam’s Razor (Pág. 197-202)

Johannes Borgstein

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25 años de la revista

detalle del Número 50 de la revista científica Ludus Vitalis
25 años de la revistaLudus Vitalis

Ludus Vitalis

Revista científica. Nº 50. Vol. 26. 2018. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y Edicions UIB de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Arqueología, Historia, Filosofía, Lenguaje y Lingüística.
Palabras clave: evolucionismo, epistemología, lo humano, antropología

Autores: Vicente Dressino, Íñigo Ongay, Olivier Perru, Andrea Olmos, Javier Correa Román, Abdiel Fernando Uribe Allier, Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz, Jahir Navalles Gómez, Los editores, Jaqueline Alcázar Morales, Ricardo Noguera Solano, Jorge Alberto Álvarez Díaz, Juan Ramón Álvarez, Armando Aranda-Anzaldo, Violeta Aréchiga, Xóchitl Arteaga Villamil, Juan Felipe Guevara Aristizábal, José Agustín Mercado Reyes, Fernando Auciello, Lucrecia Burges Cruz, Marcel Cano I Soler, Gustavo Caponi, Laureano Castro Nogueira, Miguel Ángel Castro Nogueira, Vicente Claramonte Sanz, Antonio Diéguez, Oscar Fernández Galindez, Mónica Gómez Salazar, Siobhan Guerrero Mc Manus, Leah Muñoz Contreras, Alan Heiblum, Víctor J. Luque, Teresa Pacheco-Méndez, Ángel Rivera Arrizabalaga, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Caso, Natacha Salomé Lima, Carlos A. Zavaro Pérez

Descripción:

Ludus Vitalis llega a cincuenta números. Durante estos veinticinco años, los lectores, autores y editores de esta revista hemos sostenido un diálogo acerca de lo que significan las ciencias de la vida. Diálogo entendido como la construcción de tejidos que resultan del trabajo compartido. Se han tejido consensos y disensos, poderes y saberes, fobias y filias, valores y amistades. Se ha mostrado que es posible para una comunidad —la que eligió esta publicación como uno de sus referentes— pensar el mundo contemporáneo en lo que toca a las ideas sobre los seres vivos. Esta revista ha operado como un lugar de encuentro donde se reflexiona con rigor e imaginación, con libertad y pasión, acerca de lo que sabemos sobre los procesos de lo viviente. Muchas cosas han pasado estos años y muchos enigmas y desafíos se anuncian en el porvenir. Ello concierne a Ludus Vitalis y, sobra decirlo, sólo reafirma nuestro compromiso.

ARTÍCULOS:


Niche construction and extra-genetic adaptation: Their roles as mechanisms in evolutionary change (Pág. 1-15)

Vicente Dressino

The niche construction concept has triggered much controversy related to its tensions with the natural selection concept and with its potential role as an updated version of the “adaptation” concept. Empirical data are providing evidence of certain explanatory weaknesses in the dominant evolutionary theory. The contributions of extra-genetic adaptation studies, together with epigenetic research ones, are shaping a new scenario in evolutionary explanations. The aim of this work is to analyze the interrelation between niche construction, extra-genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity as evolutionary explanatory mechanisms. In this respect, this work may act as a bridge between classical approaches of evolutionary theory and as an alternative perspective based on the reversibility of extra-genetic or physiological inheritance.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Evolution, adaptation, extra-genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, niche construction, evolutionary explanatory mechanisms.

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The principle of parsimony and how August Weismann used it (Pág. 17-33)

Íñigo Ongay

This paper explores the use of the principle of simplicity in August Weismann’s critiques of the inheritance of acquired characters. After considering different accounts of simplicity as a scientific virtue to be taken into account in science evaluation, the paper goes on to scrutinize a particular example of the principle of parsimony at work. The author considers the structure of August Weismann’s arguments for the all-sufficiency principle of natural selection (NS) to conclude that a variety of lines of reasoning can be identified in his account and that parsimony plays a different role to each. There has been a long-lasting agreement among historians of biology and philosophers of science alike that the work of Weismann signals that theories involving the heredity of acquired traits are flawed, as such type of inheritance is not possible in evolution. While much debate has recently arisen in the domain of evolutionary developmental biology challenging the Weismann barrier principle, both the proponents of the “extended synthesis” and the Neodarwinian orthodoxy seem to coincide in that Weismann’s arguments favor NS to the virtual exclusion of any other principle regulating the transmission of traits in evolution. Whatever Weismann would have wanted to conclude, I will argue that this understanding of what Weismann’s arguments entail is a mistake.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Extended synthesis, Lamarckian inheritance, natural selection, parsimony, philosophy of biology

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Nicolas-Jean Boulay (1837-1905), botany and evolution (Pág. 35-49)

Olivier Perru

In this paper, we consider the scientific activities of Abbé Boulay at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in paleobotany, and we will analyze some of Boulay’s papers about evolution. As a priest of the Catholic Church and a dean of the Faculty of Sciences in a Catholic University, was Boulay completely opposed to biological evolution or did he change his position concerning this problem between 1875 and 1900? In 1898, in a paper about survival, he recognized the possibility of an evolution in plants and animals. He wrote that the derivation of species from common ancestors was possible. Thus, in the papers written at the end of his life, he did not still reject the evolution of plants and animals as a scientific fact. Nevertheless, Boulay argued repeatedly against Darwinism and he explored the relationship between the Christian teaching on creation, “scholastic” philosophy and the possibility of an evolutionary theory. Today, this thought seems too apologetic.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Boulay, botany, paleobotany, evolution, Transformism, species

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La heterogeneidad de criterios para la atribución funcional. Estudio de un caso (Pág. 51-76)

Andrea Olmos

The philosophical discussion around the concept of function led to the formulation of various definitions in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. In this paper, I evaluate the adequacy of the most prominent philosophical proposals based on the evidence used for the attribution of functions in a case study of behavioral biology, and show how each proposed definition only partially accounts for the evidence appealed in this case. Considering these results, I suggest that the heterogeneity of criteria used for functional attribution could be symptomatic for the need to treat ‘function’ as a theoretical concept, based on the criteria of determination, and not on a definition in terms of necessary or sufficient conditions.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Functional attribution, systemic approach, etiological approach, fitness contribution approach, theoretical concept, definition, criteria of determination

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El mundo como noúmeno o de las implicaciones filosóficas de la neurociencia (Pág. 77-92)

Javier Correa Román

To empiricist criticism it has been almost an obsession to found the objectivity of knowledge and so to find the possibility of unraveling the world in its reality, in itself. This article, through the discoveries of neuroscience in the sense of touch, aims to discuss both epistemological ambitions. At the end, it is concluded the impossibility of founding a transcendental subject based on the sciences and using it as a safe and calm road to the mysteries of the world itself.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Neuroscience, transcendental subject, epistemology, noumenon, PAD

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El concepto de autonomía y la formación de los profesionales de la salud. El caso de la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo (Pág. 93-121)

Abdiel Fernando Uribe Allier, Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

PROFESSIONALS. THE CASE OF VOLUNTARY INTERRUPTION OF PREGNANCY The work is divided into two sections: the first deals with how complex the term autonomy is; the second relates to medical education and the training on abortion and voluntary interruption of pregnancy. To deal with the issue of autonomy, we try to define it, highlight its importance, broaden the concept, draw up an outline of what can be understood by autonomy in bioethics, and propose relationships between autonomy and voluntary interruption of pregnancy. On the subject of training, the relevance of reason has been highlighted, but it is recalled that human beings are both reason and emotion, and values cannot be left aside. Values influence clinical practice (this has always been the case, but it has been a silent issue), so their relationship with professional norms and standards are analyzed, as well as the implicit values in medical education. In addition, we analyze several moral concepts held by health professionals, their history, and how such concepts relate to abortion.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Abortion, voluntary termination of pregnancy, values, medical education, autonomy

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Érase una vez o los tres estadios del territorio (Pág. 123-146)

Jahir Navalles Gómez

This paper intents to ponder on the consequences of the intervention on territory and, at the same time, on knowledge and culture. Since the invention and development of certain devices, immersed in the most common social practices as mediators of social relations, a history of territoriality is exposed throughout its execution, defense and introduction. A journey is made from exploration to exploitation, from traveler to hunter, from clueless to expert, from nomad to sedentary, from nature to civilization, from culture to technology, from collectivity to individual, and vice versa. It tells us something about space and time, and above all, about distance as social form.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Territory, space, distance, knowledge, culture, cartography, conquest, empathy, society, bond

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Foro: ¿Por qué y a quién importa pensar a las ciencias de la vida desde o junto a la filosofía, la historia y la teoría social? A su vez, ¿interesa a estas disciplinas tener como referentes a las ciencias de la vida?

Los editores

En los textos breves que siguen se elaboran respuestas a estas preguntas:rn —¿Por qué y a quién importa pensar a las ciencias de la vida desde o junto a la filosofía, la historia y la teoría social? A su vez, ¿interesa a estas disciplinas tener como referentes a las ciencias de la vida?rnNuevas contribuciones se publicarán en el próximo número de la revista.rnLos foros anteriores de Ludus se encuentran en nuestro sitio web. In the following brief texts, responses are advanced to these questions:rn— To whom and why does it matters to think the life sciences from or along with philosophy, history and social theory? On its turn, do such disciplines have an interest to consider life sciences?rnNew collaborations will be published in our next issue.rnLudus forums can be read in our website.

De la orfandad del sin sentido (Pág. 149-152)

Jaqueline Alcázar Morales, Ricardo Noguera Solano

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Dificultad y necesidad de hablar sobre la “vida” (Pág. 153-156)

Jorge Alberto Álvarez Díaz

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Las ciencias naturales de la vida, entreveradas con las semióticas y humanas: Juntas pero no revueltas (Pág. 151-161)

Juan Ramón Álvarez

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Why biologists should read Aristotle (or why philosophy matters for the life sciences and why the life sciences matter for philosophy) (Pág. 163-167)

Armando Aranda-Anzaldo

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¿Tiene la filosofía de la biología un oikos? (Pág. 169-172)

Violeta Aréchiga, Xóchitl Arteaga Villamil, Juan Felipe Guevara Aristizábal, José Agustín Mercado Reyes

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Life, o el juego de la vida (Pág. 173-176)

Fernando Auciello

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El comportamiento altruista y las diferencias sexuales en la cognición humana (Pág. 177-180)

Lucrecia Burges Cruz

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Ciencias de la vida y filosofía (Pág. 181-184)

Marcel Cano I Soler

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¿Qué quiere decir ‘naturalizar’? (Pág. 185-188)

Gustavo Caponi

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¿El capitalismo es contrario a la vida? (Pág. 189-192)

 

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El estudio de la moralidad humana como ejemplo de la necesidad de interacción entre la filosofía y las ciencias de la vida (Pág. 193-196)

Laureano Castro Nogueira, Miguel Ángel Castro Nogueira

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Ludus Vitalis y el juego de descubrir la naturaleza humana integral (Pág. 197-201)

Vicente Claramonte Sanz

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Pensar filosóficamente sobre la biología y las ciencias biomédicas (Pág. 203-206)

Antonio Diéguez

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Vita vital (Pág. 207-210)

Oscar Fernández Galindez

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Breve reflexión sobre filosofía y vacunación

Mónica Gómez Salazar

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Bio/Ontologías del siglo XXI: Feminismos, intervenciones y resistencias (Pág. 215-218)

Siobhan Guerrero Mc Manus, Leah Muñoz Contreras

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En la antípoda del rinoceronte (Pág. 219-222)

Alan Heiblum

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La filosofía y la biología: Por una relación monstruosa (Pág. 223-226)

 

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Two to tango: Sobre la relación entre filosofía y biología (Pág. 227-230)

Víctor J. Luque

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Teoría social, ciencias naturales y filosofía (Pág. 231-235)

 

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Reflexiones sobre la complejidad en los seres vivos: Desde su origen hasta la mente humana (Pág. 237-241)

 

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El naturalismo en las ciencias sociales vino para quedarse (Pág. 243-246)

 

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Filosofía y ciencias de la vida (Pág. 247-251)

 

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La biología como ejemplo para las reflexiones en filosofía de la ciencia (Pág. 253-255)

 

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La vida: El centro de nuestra existencia (Pág. 257-260)

 

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A partir de ahora, ¿El todo o las partes? (Pág. 261-264)

Teresa Pacheco-Méndez

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Necesidad de interdisciplina entre las ciencias de la vida y la filosofía, historia y teoría social (Pág. 265-266)

Ángel Rivera Arrizabalaga

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Ciencias de la vida y humanidades: Acercamientos interdisciplinarios necesarios (Pág. 267-270)

Juan Manuel Rodríguez Caso

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Ni apocalípticos ni integrados: Una mirada sobre por qué es necesario pensar las ciencias de la vida desde o junto a las ciencias sociales (Pág. 271-274)

Natacha Salomé Lima

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¿Saber sobre la naturaleza o naturaleza del saber? La ciencia y filosofía como lectura de la realidad (Pág. 275-278)

Carlos A. Zavaro Pérez

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Un primate con apetito epistémico. Pensando la evolución humana con Hume y Boltvinik

detalle de la portada de el libro sobre el primate de Aura Ponce

Un primate con apetito epistémico. Pensando la evolución humana con Hume y Boltvinik

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“DESCARGA PDF”/ Artículo. 2008. Ciudad de México (México).

Editado por: Cooordinación Nacional de Antropología, ­INAH

Ciencias Naturales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: naturaleza humana, Julio Boltvinik, David Hume, evolución humana

Autor/a:

Dra. Aura Ponce de Leon. Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano

Descripción:

Lo que se presenta a continuación son algunas reexiones acerca del papel que tuvo el trabajo junto con la existencia de una mente causal en el proceso de hominización. Llamo así a una mente que se orienta a percibir, comprender y utilizar la causalidad en el mundo. Para ello, analizo dos concepciones de gran interés sobre el ser humano. Una, expuesta por Julio Boltvinik (2005) en su obra Ampliar la mirada. Un nuevo enfoque sobre la pobreza y el orecimiento humano1. La otra, expuesta por David Hume (1739) en su Tratado de la Naturaleza Humana.

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Artículo. 2008, Ciudad de México (México). Editado por: Cooordinación Nacional de Antropología, ­INAH

Ciencias Naturales: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: naturaleza humana, Julio Boltvinik, David Hume, evolución humana

Autores destacados:

Dra. Aura Ponce de Leon. Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano

Descripción:

Lo que se presenta a continuación son algunas reexiones acerca del papel que tuvo el trabajo junto con la existencia de una mente causal en el proceso de hominización. Llamo así a una mente que se orienta a percibir, comprender y utilizar la causalidad en el mundo. Para ello, analizo dos concepciones de gran interés sobre el ser humano. Una, expuesta por Julio Boltvinik (2005) en su obra Ampliar la mirada. Un nuevo enfoque sobre la pobreza y el orecimiento humano1. La otra, expuesta por David Hume (1739) en su Tratado de la Naturaleza Humana.

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Número 14. Ludus Vitalis

Imagen Ludus Vitalis Nº 14

Número. 14. Vol. 8. Número 14. Ludus VitalisEdit

Revista científica. Nº 14. Vol. 8. 2000. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Revista semestral editada por el Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública, la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y Edicions UIB de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

ISSN: 1133-5165
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Antropología, Arqueología, Ciencias Cognitivas.
Palabras clave: evolucionismo, antropología, filosofía de la biología

Descripción:

Historia y filosofía de las teorías evolucionistas, epistemología de las ciencias de la vida, paleoantropología y estudios sobre lo humano, el juego de los conceptos.

ARTÍCULOS:


On progressive animal evolution and the place of humans in nature (Pág. 3-23)

Francis Dov Por

In disagreement with the reigning view that animal evolution is only the result of contingency and of catastrophic events, this article presents a view which considers animal evolution as a cumulative process of information buildup, channeled by irreversible constraints. The roots of the prevalent anti-progressivist views are briefly reviewed.rnrnThe role of the animals in biospheric evolution is analyzed on the background of the general entropy increase in the solar system. Animals act as energy traders and stimulators of the expansion and efficiency of the biosphere. The basic functions of animality are defined, and their improvement is seen as a yardstick of progress. Progressive evolution in the animal kingdom is followed along its winding and narrow path, as their respective structural and physiological burdens successively bind the different phyla. Natural selection at the phyletic level is seen as acting, rather than the extraterrestrial catastrophes. Increasing segments of the animal world are induced into establishing subservient relationships with the dominant phyla. Terrestrial animal life, with its high demands for homeostasis compensated for by an ample vegetal biomass and rich oxygen supply, had the uniquely capacity to give rise to the most complex animal forms. Among the homeothermic vertebrates, mammals are singled-out by natural selection to produce the most intelligent and energetically active animal beings. The rise of the humans is not an accident, but the present crowning of a long ‘post-hoc’ foreseeable process. It is a new and, again, irreversible stage in organic evolution, with long-lasting and profound effects.

Palabras clave / Keywords: modern biology, nature, human

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Nuevos enfoques en la teoría de la evolución (Pág. 25-34)

Andrés Moya

New approaches to the theory of evolutionrnrnAlthough in a metaphoric way, we can approach the explanation of the body of biological evolution by resorting to the dimensions used in physics to locate bodies in space. Thus, a point in space is well located when one has a necessary and sufficient set of orthogonal dimensions. Such dimensions, which in evolutionary biology we will call “parameters”, are usually associated to certain theories of biological evolution. According to the classical (and extended classical) theory, three parameters provide an adequate description of the body of evolution, i.e., mutation, natural selection, and chance. New findings, or old ones re-interpreted upon a new foundation, intend to provide new parameters for understanding the body of evolution. There are even some approaches that go as far as to state that selection is not a fundamental parameter to account for the generation of the living world. Demonstrating that this thesis is not correct, that the new parameters are irrelevant to explain the living world, or that they are reducible to the three mentioned above, represents nowadays one of the core theoretical debates on the theory of evolution.rnrnAmong the new approaches to evolution, it is worth mentioning those related to evolutionary computing, in vitro building of simple phenotypes or ancestral genes, or the restraints that development places on the morphology of individuals. All of them debate the relative role that natural selection plays in evolution, and some of them, according to the degree of verification of the hypotheses, sustain that explaining the body of evolution requires new dimensions or parameters.

Palabras clave / Keywords: evolución, evolución computacional, morfología

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Endosymbiosis and self-organization (Pág. 35-65)

Olivier Perru

From the beginning, symbiosis has been viewed as an association of two specifically distinct organisms living together. Firstly, symbiosis may suggest an idea of mutual benefit, but partners become dependent on symbiosis. Such dynamical phenomenon between two organisms in physiological interdependence is liable to evolve by creating a new life unit. This notion implies a reorganization of genomes and seems especially adapted to describe endosymbiosis. Putting forward a hypothesis of interactions leads us to consider the organism as a consequence of a self-organization process. In this paper, we refer to Kauffman’s works and to various cases of endosymbiosis. Considering the symbiotic genome, some biological results tend to indicate that models with (C=1 or C=2, K=1 or K=2) are not unrealistic and should be tested. But different epistemological questions prompt us to reflect further on the role of natural selection, the reality of the modeled interactions, the nature of the process of mutual adjustment. Moreover, regular interactions cannot exist in constant numbers for each gene. In spite of all these caveats regarding the applicability of Kauffman’s model concerning the establishment of a symbiosis in amoebae, simulation and experimentation yield results included in the same order of magnitude.

Palabras clave / Keywords: evolución, organismo, reorganización del genoma, ADN

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Cómo y por qué de lo viviente (Pág. 67-102)

Gustavo Caponi

How and why of the livingrnrnErnst Mayr has always insisted in presenting the sciences of life divided into two general dominions of inquiry: functional biology, devoted to study experimentally the proximate causes which, acting at the level of the individual organism, explain the how of vital phenomena; and evolutionary biology, which intends to reconstruct, through comparative methods and historical inferences, the ultimate or remote causes that, acting at the population level, would explain the why of such phenomena. Admitting such distinction, the author nonetheless takes the liberty to suggest that these two dominions of inquiry may be thought of as following two different methodological maxims, each one of which, it will be stated, establishes a different mode to question the living.rnrnThus, we will refer to a function principle, which would rule over functional biology, and an adaptation principle governing evolutionary biology. The idea is that, by defining a type of questioning or an explanatory aim for each sphere of inquiry, these maxims also establish the model or pattern of explanation that will operate as the correct answer to the type of question put forward in either sphere: the function principle gives rise to that which is often called functional explanation or analysis, and the adaptation principle gives rise to that which has sometimes been called selective explanation.rnrnThe contrast between these two explanatory models will allow us to grasp no only the difference existing between what Mayr calls proximate causes and ultimate causes, but also the existing difference between the notion of [physiological] function, inherent to functional biology, and the notion of [adaptive] function, inherent to evolutionary biology. Thus, partially adopting a doubtless widely-spread posture, we will state that, whereas the core feature of functional biology is causal analysis, in which a notion of function akin to that proposed by Cummins is assumed, evolutionary biology involves a different notion that, no doubt, is at least kindred to the one proposed by Wright.rnrnNonetheless, the author will not conclude that both principles have the same epistemological statute; based on our analysis, only one of them, the adaptation principle, has a statute analogous to the principle of causation; the other one, the function principle, will be thought of as a subordinate to the latter. And such difference, closely linked to the different forms of teleology that, as we hope to demonstrate, are presupposed in either dominion of biology, may also be useful to recognize the different degree of autonomy that evolutionary biology and functional biology have in regard to physics and chemistry.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Ernst Mayr, filosofía de la biología, biología funcional

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L. Laudan’s theory of Scientific aims (Pág. 103-129)

Armando Cíntora

Laudan’s proposed constraints on cognitive aims are criticized:rni) Laudan’s proscription of ‘semantically utopian’ and ‘epistemically utopian’ aims is too restrictive.rnii) Laudan does not distinguish impossible valuable goals from impossible but approachable valuable goals (i.e., ideal goals).rniii) Laudan’s recommendation against impossible aims is counter-in-tuitive because it characterizes as irrational idealist conduct (such as that of saints, heroes, and martyrs.)rniv) Laudan’s pre-philosophical’ canons of scientific success cannot bejustified empirically as valuable without some intuitions about what is a genuine example of successful science. This even though Laudan has told us that his meta-methodology does not require of intuitions.

Palabras clave / Keywords: Laudan, pre-filosofía, filosofía

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El patrimonio arqueológico mexicano y la International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology (Pág. 131-164)

Michthild Rutsch

The archaelogical patrimony of Mexico and the International School of American Archaeology and EthnologyrnrnIn recent years, the usual narratives in the history of anthropology, especially regarding its founding fathers, have received radical criticism. Although this is written from the present or current context, it does not amount to an unreflective historical presentism, but intends to provide new starting points for this discipline in the face of the twenty-first century and of teaching in anthropology. The historiography of Mexican anthropology has paid scarce attention to the pre-Revolutionary periods and to the activity of the National Museum of Archaeology, History and Ethnology under the government of Porfirio Díaz. Rather, Manuel Gamio, with his Department of Archaeological and Ethnographic Studies (1917), is considered the founding father of scientific anthropology in the country. This essay intends to locate an episode of anthropology in the final years of the Diaz regime. The International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology was created then on the initiative of Franz Boas, with support from the Mexican and Prussian governments and from some U.S. institutions. The first head of the School was Eduard Georg Seler, an Americanist well-known in the central nations, and also a personal and professional friend of Boas’s. In 1911, together with his wife and some of his students, Seler set out on several archaeological expeditions for which, according to the School’s statutes, he received an authorization from the then Department of Inspection and Preservation of Archaeological Monuments. Thus, in March of that year, he visited Palenque, where he discovered mural paintings. Such discovery led to a conflict with Leopoldo Batres, the Inspector and Preserver of Archaeological Monuments. The conflict centered in the discovery and preservation of the paintings. From the horizon of the early twentieth century, this episode, unknown until now in the historiography of Mexican anthropology, highlights problems which still prevail in the current discussions regarding the ethics, policy, and the professional practice of the preservation and rescue of Mexico’s cultural patrimony.

Palabras clave / Keywords: patrimonio arqueológico, arqueología, pintura mural, monumentos arqueológicos

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El comportamiento humano con su ambiente a la luz de las teorías biológicas de la evolución (Pág. 165-187)

Guillermo Foladori

Human behavior with his environment in the light of biological evolution theoriesrnrnThis paper demonstrates that the modern phenogenetic theory of evolution offers a fertile ground on which to establish the relation between biological and social sciences.rnrnThe paper criticizes hegemonic Neo-Darwinism, pointing out that its theoretical tools do not allow moving from the behavior of living beings as a whole to that of human beings in particular without “somersaults” that lead, unwittingly, to idealistic postures. These are apparent in Ultradarwinism, which explains human culture or its institutions in terms of the virtue, courage, boldness, willingness, and so forth of the victors. They can likewise be seen in the traditional dichotomy nature-culture, where the latter term arises from a biological evolution but, as soon as it does, is explained by its ideal expressions (shared mental construction, articulate language, symbology, and so on).rnrnWe argue that the rationale for such limitation lies in Neo-Darwinism’s contempt towards the role of the phenotype in evolution. For Neodarwinism, evolution is an almost exclusively genetic issue. In this paper we recall that, to formulate his theory on natural selection, Darwin himself was inspired on another form of evolutionary selection, the artificial one carried out by breeders. It is precisely this latter form that Homo sapiens has favored by subjecting all evolution, both wittingly and unwittingly, to his own destiny.rnrnThe core argument in the paper is that such artificial selection is possible inasmuch as man relates with his surroundings in an increasingly mediatic way, through things produced and stored. This modality is part of the phenotype’s activity in the transformation of the surroundings, which sets a kind of ecological inheritance for oncoming generations, and it may be traced to other living creatures, as the phenogenetical theory of evolution states. On the contrary, if evolution is considered as an exclusively genetic issue, there is no space for artificial selection.rnrnHowever, Homo sapiens presents a qualitative difference regarding the rest of living beings, since the manufactured things that increasingly interpose between the organism and its environment become accumulated throughout time, which involves a growing mediatization, a higher complexity and the possibility of a monopoly over them. Thus, the behavior of man towards his environment should be analyzed according to the varying control, dominion or availability of social classes over the means of production which are, ultimately, what makes it possible to manufacture the rest of things.

Palabras clave / Keywords: antropología, comportamiento humano, evolucionismo

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La relación “genotipo-fenotipo” y su posible extrapolación al estudio del comportamiento y la cultura humana (Pág. 189-202)

Eugenio Andrade

La relación “genotipo-fenotipo” y su posible extrapolación al estudio del comportamiento y la cultura humana

Palabras clave / Keywords: genotipo, fenotipo, genotipo-fenotipo

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A pyrrhic victory for phenogenetics: A world-encompassing artificial selection (Pág. 203-206)

Francis Dov Por

A pyrrhic victory for phenogenetics: A world-encompassing artificial selection

Palabras clave / Keywords: evolucionismo, genoma, ADN, selección artificial

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Intérêt, doutes et questions (Pág. 2017-212)

Jean-Marc Drouin

Intérêt, doutes et questions

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Is it worth to fit the social sciences in the same track as the study of biological evolution? (Pág. 213-218)

Armando Aranda-Anzaldo

Is it worth to fit the social sciences in the same track as the study of biological evolution?

Palabras clave / Keywords: evolucionismo, antropología, biología evolutiva

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Genes, fenotipo y cultura. ¿Exclusión, interacción o integración? (Pág. 219-222)

Adrián Medina Liberty

Genes, fenotipo y cultura. ¿Exclusión, interacción o integración?

Palabras clave / Keywords: Genes, fenotipo, ADN, cultura

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Respuesta a los comentarios al artículo El comportamiento humano con su ambiente a la luz de las teorías biológicas de la evolución (Pág. 223-228)

Guillermo Foladori

Respuesta a los comentarios al artículo El comportamiento humano con su ambiente a la luz de las teorías biológicas de la evolución

Palabras clave / Keywords: comportamiento humano, antropología, selección, filosofía de la biología

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Sobre la aparición de los seres humanos modernos (Pág. 229-232)

Antonio Arnaiz-Villena

Sobre la aparición de los seres humanos modernos

Palabras clave / Keywords: antropología, selección, filosofía de la biología

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La tercera margen. Crítica del conocimiento objetivo (Pág. 233-239)

Jorge Ruedas de la Serna

Palabras clave / Keywords: conocimiento objetivo

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De Genes, Dioses y Tiranos. La Determinación Biológica de la Moral

Detalle de la portada: Genes, Dioses y Tiranos


“DESCARGA PDF”

Libro. Eslabones en el desarrollo de la ciencia. 2011. Ciudad de México (México)
Editado por: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano

ISBN: 978-607-466-036-4
Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades: Evolucionismo, Ciencias de la Vida, Antropología, Etnología, Historia, Sociología, Filosofía.
Palabras clave: filosofía. filosofía griega, ciencias humanas, antropología

Autor/a:

Camilo José Cela Conde (Departamento de Filosofía de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares)

Descripción:

Desde los tiempos de la lírica arcaica griega, el hombre sueña con explicar su propia conducta. Es ese el trasfondo de todas las actividades que van desde la literatura a la filosofía especulativa, pasando por el cajón desastre que constituyen las que llamamos, a falta de mejor nombre y más exacta demarcación, ‘ciencias humanas’. En los últimos años se ha unido a la familia inquisidora un nuevo miembro que reclama, además, pretensiones extremas de cientificidad: la biología. Se trata, en realidad de un intento recurrente, porque al menos dos veces (en ocasión del darwinismo original y de la síntesis neodarvvinista) ya se habían formulado tesis destinadas a introducir las explicaciones causales biológicas en el campo general de la acción humana.rnEn esta obra se va a tratar de establecer la relación existente entre biología y moral, aceptando como punto de partida ciertas tesis de cariz darwinista. El aspecto de la determinación social se dejará prácticamente de lado, y creo que la abrumadora bibliografía con que ya cuenta es justificación suficiente del porqué de tal medida. Eso no quiere decir, sin embargo, que el papel de la sociedad tenga que considerarse irrelevante como fuente de determinaciones, y de hecho reclamará su presencia en algunos casos. Al fin y al cabo, nuestro futuro reposa en lo colectivo. Lo que se está discutiendo no es cuál resulta la mayor fuente de determinaciones morales, en el supuesto de que éstas existan, sino en qué medida podemos aceptar una fundamentación biológica del fenómeno ético.

Índice:

Prólogo (Pág: 9)
Palabras previas (Pág: 27)
I. LOS NIVELES DE LO MORAL (Pág: 31)
II. EL NIVEL ALFA-MORAL. EN EL PRINCIPIO ERA DARWIN (Pág: 49)
III. EL NIVEL BETA-MORAL. SENTIR O RAZONAR. EL OBSTÁCULO KANTIANO (Pág: 69)
IV. EL NIVEL BETA-MORAL. LO BUENO Y LO AMARILLO (Pág: 85)
V. EL NIVEL BETA-MORAL. LA PREFERENCIA RACIONAL. DE SMITH A RAWLS (Pág: 113)
VI. EL NIVEL GAMMA-MORAL. GENES Y TIRANOS (Pág: 139)
VII. EL NIVEL DELTA-MORAL. DIOSES Y GENES (Pág: 163)
VIII. EL PROGRESO MORAL (Pág: 175)
IX. ADVERSUS LIBERALES. EL DERECHO A LA EXCELENCIA Y A LA JUSTICIA DISTRIBUTIVA (Pág: 189)
NOTAS (Pág: 213)
BIBLIOGRAFÍA (Pág: 231)




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CEDAR: Centro Darwin de Pensamiento Evolucionista

El CEDAR: Centro Darwin de Pensamiento Evolucionista, perteneciente a la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) y dirigido por el Dr. Jorge Martínez Contreras, colabora con el Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano en cuestiones de evolucionismo, primatología y filosofía de la biología.

Dando inicio su actividad el 07 de diciembre de 2010, ha desarrollado diversas actividades académicas en estrecha colaboración con el Centro Lombardo Toledano. Entre sus actividades académicas destacan los Congresos y publicaciones realizadas entre ambas instituciones, que se pueden consultar en el Repositorio del Centro.

Entre las actividades académicas del Centro Darwin destaca el Congreso Internacional Cedar-V: Evolución Biológica y Cultural, que ya cuenta con dos ediciones.

Entre las publicaciones destacan los siguientes libros:

CULTURA Y EVOLUCIÓN

EN BUSCA DE LO HUMANO

VOL. I. ESTUDIOS EN HISTORIA Y FILOSOFÍA DE LA BIOLOGÍA

VOL. II. ESTUDIOS EN HISTORIA Y FILOSOFÍA DE LA BIOLOGÍA

NATURALEZA Y DIVERSIDAD HUMANA: ESTUDIOS EVOLUCIONISTAS

PRIMATES: EVOLUCIÓN, CULTURA Y DIVERSIDAD

SENDEROS DE LA CONSERVACIÓN Y DE LA RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA. EVALUACIÓN CRÍTICA Y ÉTICA

El principal objetivo del Centro Darwin de Pensamiento Evolucionista es el estudio de la evolución para poder entender a la especie humana, como resultado de la selección natural y adaptado, en gran parte gracias a la tecnología, a ambientes específicos, así como una herramienta filosófica y científica indispensable para la compresión y explicación del origen y desarrollo de la cognición y de la cultura.

Del mismo modo, resulta imprescindible estudiar al resto de seres vivos, los ecosistemas que compartimos, así como la lucha por la conservación de los espacios naturales. En definitiva, el estudio del evolucionismo desde una perspectiva que también contemple la Filosofía de la Biología y de la Ciencia.

Entrevista realizada al Dr. Jorge Martínez Contreras para el Blog de la UAM

Objetivos del CEDAR:

  • Documentación en amplios temas relacionados con el evolucionismo.
  • Difusión de documentos y de eventos.
  • Creación de redes científicas y de difusión temática.
  • Organización de coloquios y congresos nacionales e internacionales.
  • Organización de cursos y de diplomados.
  • Publicación de trabajos tanto especializados como de divulgación.
  • Impulso de seminarios y de foros de discusión.

Contacto:

Telefono: (+5255) 5804 4600 / Ext 3505, 3506, 3507 y 3508.
cedarv@xanum.uam.mx.

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